Earthbag houses by Cal Earth

Nader Khalili’s students and others have been spreading the earthbag concept far and wide. Earthbag houses have been built in Arizona by Dominic Howes and in Utah by Kaki Hunter and Doni Kiffmeyer, and structures using earthbags have appeared in Mexico, Canada, and Mongolia. Straw builder Matts Myhrman has used earthbags for the foundation of a straw-bale dome, and Steve Kemble has used bags to create the first floor of a house in the Bahamas.

There is still much to be researched and experimented with until this technology can be considered mature. Current work by Cal Earth with the ICBO should open the door to many more buildings being created using earthbags. As natural building innovators continue to experiment by building with bags, many new innovations are sure to develop.

Joseph F. Kennedy is an architect, writer and peripatetic scholar of natural building and ecological design. livingearth62@hotmail.com

Cal-Earth: California Institute Of Earth, Art & Architecture
Emergency Shelters – Vaulted House – Eco Domes – Planetary Architecture
Cal-Earth Website

Build An Emergency Sand-Bag Shelter Home – 3 x A4 Page Colour PDF File: http://loveforlife.com.au/files/KhaliliEmergShltr_0.pdf (Attachment is also located at the bottom of this page)

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What Is Cal-Earth

What Is Cal-Earth

Cal-Earth (The California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture) is at the cutting edge of Earth Art and Ceramic Architecture technologies today. Founded and directed by the internationally renowned architect and author Nader Khalili in 1986, it’s scope spans technical innovations published by NASA for lunar base construction, to design and development of housing for the world’s homeless for the United Nations.

Donate Now: https://www.egrants.org/donate/index.cfm?ID=2093-0|705-0

Cal-Earth is a non-profit foundation dedicated to research and education of the public in environmentally oriented arts and architecture. It’s philosophy is based on the equilibrium of the natural elements of earth, water, air, and fire, and their Unity at the service of the arts and humanity.

Nader Khalili’s Message

humans are members of the same body
all created from the same essence
if one limb is in pain
others cannot be at ease
if you are indifferent to other people’s pain
you cannot be called a human
– Saadi – (13th century Persian poet)

The world’s focus on Global Warming with its unpredictable future is happening while the world is trying to recuperate from the catastrophic central Asian Earthquake as well as the Asian Tsunami, which also happened on the anniversary of the great Bam earthquake in Iran. Tens of thousands have lost their lives – most communities wiped out in a matter of minutes or hours. The hurricanes on the South Coast of the United States have created an unprecedented disaster requiring great cost and effort to deal with. Added to this are the Central American hurricanes, refugees in Darfur, as well as continuous victims of AIDS who leave behind huge numbers of homeless orphans.

Emergency help has been rushing and criss-crossing the globe to find survivors – doctoring, feeding, crowding them into temporary shelters and relocating them. There are not enough tents in the world to shelter the latest Central Asian earthquake victims who are facing more disaster from the winter freeze and winds.

The greatest costs of rebuilding after the disasters goes to the infrastructure and human shelter.

The need is ever more urgent to build self-help, emergency shelters which can become sustainable, permanent structures and are more resistant to more disasters.

The accelerating rate of disasters in the world and the historical increase in the loss of human life and property, must create a sense of urgency for the U.N. and other agencies to pay serious attention to alternative ways of building.

There is a Sustainable Solution to Human Shelter, based on Timeless Materials (earth, water, air and fire) and Timeless Principles (arches, vaults and domes). Every man and woman should be able to build a shelter for his or her family with these universal elements, almost anywhere on the earth and other planets. These principles, interpreted into the simplest form of building technology have created emergency shelter which can become permanent houses, and which have passed strict tests and building codes. Since 1975 we have been dedicated to researching and developing this low-cost, self-help, eco-friendly technology which can resist disasters, and to offer it to humanity. The only missing link is to educate humans how to use these timeless techniques, developed at Cal-Earth Institute, to fit their own culture and environment.

PRESS RELEASE

Self-Help Emergency Shelter for Central Asian Earthquake Disaster

Cal-Earth Institute is ready to offer its help to Families, International, Governmental and Non-governmental organizations in the earthquake disaster region for emergency shelters.

Basic materials needed are on-site earth, sandbags, barbed wire, and human labor.

To the best of it’s ability as a small institute it will contribute its technology using the following methods:

1) Provide Distance Learning via live internet connection instructing how to construct the emergency shelters directly to relief organizations in the disaster area.

2) Provide training at Cal-Earth Institute to selected individuals in intensive hands-on workshops who are coming from the disaster regions to teach and supervise the construction of shelters. The training is based on Cal-Earth’s existing educational materials.

This emergency shelter technology can be used for the reconstruction of both permanent housing as well as other buildings and infrastructures.

Cal-Earth Institute is a non-profit educational and research organization in Hesperia, California. The Superadobe emergency shelter technology, which has been designed and developed by architect Nader Khalili and his associates at Cal-Earth Institute, has been built and successfully tested for California’s strict building codes. It is patented in the U.S. and overseas but is now offered freely to those in need in the disaster region.

The shelters and technology have been visited and endorsed by the United Nations emergency response in 2001, and recently given the 2004 Aga Khan award for architecture for Sandbag Shelters – see link for description, photos and video clip.

PRESS RESPONSE

Reuters Alertnet: “War zones yield cheap shelter for tsunami homeless” (sandbags and barbed wire)

– from Reuters Alertnet:

” My goal is to use distance learning through the Internet,” he said. “If we could set up a regional center, we can broadcast building classes direct from Cal-Earth,”

” We can cut through the bureaucracy and go directly to the people … We could do it with a fraction of the foreign aid that has been offered to Bam. ”

– from the Washington Post:

” Bypass the U.N., bypass government, people can start building their own. ”

Dear friends,
We have been overwhelmed by your calls, emails and proposals and were very happy to see such devotion and concerns surfacing among Pakistanis. We apologize for not responding. It has become impossible for us to attend the avalanche of emails and calls not only from Pakistanis but other disasters.

Cal-Earth is a small non profit organization with great ideas and dreams and meager means. Architect Nader Khalili has given his full attention to the mission of shelter for the needy and disaster stricken since 1975. He set up Cal-Earth Institute in 1991 specifically for Superadobe, sandbag and barbed wire technology that he had designed to be the most accessible for humans around globe. This system uses on-site damp earth for temporary structures, and stabilized earth with a small amount of cement/lime for long term structures along with needed doors and windows, provided the necessary buttressing and waterproofing are added. The rest of the story is on our website, in the News Articles’ section.

Our not responding has been because we have been intensely working to help deal with these disasters especially with the emergency shelter for the great earthquake victims in Pakistan. And we are happy to share the following news with you:

1. A hands-on teaching site has now been set up by the SASI foundation in cooperation with the government in Rawalpindi and prototypes are being built which can be suitable to the local earthquake sites’ soil and conditions. Two of our trained apprentices are teaching and helping on location. We encourage you to collaborate, participate, learn, volunteer, and support. They are making the Superadobe bags available, while they are trying to set up several teaching centers in different regions.

2. To respond to this great disaster when victims are threatened every day for their lives because of fast approaching winter, as well as other disasters around the globe, we are focusing on giving more information about the Emergency Shelter with the Superadobe building method. We are diligently working to finish a summary of the relative section of Mr. Khalili’s unpublished, soon to be finished, manuscript, the Superadobe Manual, to be placed on the Emergency Shelter page of Cal-Earth’s website.

3. We are hoping to find volunteer staff to respond to the avalanche of correspondence while we are planning to do Distance Learning sessions to speed up the training, when funding becomes available. However, we have accomplished a lot with little so far and are confident that we will sustain.

We believe that your networking together can create a critical mass, to help the disaster stricken people and support the continuation of design and teaching, including Distance Learning, of this sustainable solution for Pakistan and other regions, now and in the future.

Iliona Outram
program director
Cal-Earth Institute

To help achieve Cal-Earth Institute’s goals please make a donation via the donation button.

Cal-Earth Inc. (Institute) is a California 501C3 non-profit foundation directed by Khalili, whose founding mission is:

“Research and education of the public in environmentally oriented arts and architecture, based on the equilibrium of the natural elements of earth, water, air, fire, and their Unity at the service of the arts and humanity”

“Every man and woman should be able to build a home for his or her family using the earth under their feet and integrating some features of modern technology to make their homes resistant to fire, flood, hurricane, earthquake and other disasters.” -NK

NADER KHALILI, Architect and Author

photo by George Azar

Nader Khalili, California architect/author is the world renowned Iranian-American Earth Architecture teacher and innovator of the Geltaftan Earth-and-Fire System known as Ceramic Houses, and of the Superblock construction system. Khalili received his philosophy and architectural education in Iran, Turkey, and the United States. He has been a licensed architect in the State of California since 1970, and has practiced both in the U.S. and abroad. Since 1975 he has been involved with Earth Architecture and Third World Development, and is a U.N. (UNIDO) consultant for Earth Architecture, the Ceramic Houses and SuperBlock Technologies. In 1984 the award for “Excellence in Technology” went to him for the innovation of the Ceramic Houses system, from the California Council of the American Institute of Architects (CCAIA), and in 1987 Khalili’s project “Housing for the Homeless: Research and Education” received a Certificate of Special Recognition from the U.N. International Year of Shelter for the Homeless and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).

Since 1984, Lunar and Space habitation have become an integral part of his work; his “Magma Structures” design, based on the Geltaftan (Ceramic Houses) System, and “Velcro-Adobe” system (later to become the Superblock/ sandbag and barbed wire system) were presented at the 1984 NASA symposium, “Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century”. He was subsequently invited to Los Alamos National Laboratory as a visiting scientist. He has presented papers and has been published since 1984 in several symposiums and publications including those of NASA, and the “Journal of Aerospace Engineering” for which he was awarded by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Khalili was a member of the team of the “Lunar Resources Processing Project,” along with the Princeton -based Space Studies Institute, McDonnell Douglas Space Systems, and Alcoa.

Since 1982 Khalili has been directing the Architectural Research Program at SCI-Arc, California. He is the director and founder of the Geltaftan Foundation, and the California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture (Cal-Earth) since 1986. Current projects include the Sustainable Desert Village and Hesperia Museum & Nature Center, the Rodeo/Arena for the Mojave Desert city of Hesperia, erosion stabilization of Hesperia Lake, a FEMA related project. At Cal-Earth he continues building and testing prototypes in Earth Architecture for inclusion in the Uniform Building Code. Recent work has been funded by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Katharine Tremaine Foundation, the Rex Foundation, the Leventis Foundation, Our Ultimate Investment Foundation, the Turner Foundation, and the Flora Family Foundation.

His five books were written while evolving these techniques and his philosophy of architecture. “Racing Alone”, and “Ceramic Houses and Earth Architecture: How to Build Your Own”, while developing the Geltaftan “Earth and Fire” system for building ceramic houses; “Sidewalks on the Moon”, while designing for the moon, a journey through tradition and technology; and “Rumi, Fountain of Fire”, translations of 75 poems from the Persian language mystic poet, Rumi whose wisdom concerning humanity and the elements of Earth, Water, Air and Fire are the inspiration behind his work; and “Rumi, Dancing the Flame”, 300 Rubayiat short poems of Rumi.

photo by George Azar

Khalili’s “Works and Words” have been widely exhibited and published in the US and internationally including the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and the Institute of American Indian Arts Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico; and broadcast on national and statewide TV channels such as the BBC World Service and Voice of America. Over 100 hands-on workshops and lectures have been conducted in the U.S. and abroad, from Princeton University/ Princeton New Jersey, International Space University/MIT Boston Mass., to inmates of Chino and other prisons, from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / Washington D.C., Los Alamos National Laboratory/ New Mexico, to many Native American Reservations, the Eight Northern Pueblos/ San Juan New Mexico, and from children in South Central Los Angeles hospitals to the Universities of California, national and international universities.

Khalili’s architectural works also include: the design of a future-oriented community for 5,000 inhabitants for Future City/Villages, Intl. in New Cuyama, California in 1988 (prototype structures were built on-site, and pre-fabricated vault modules were built, fired and glazed at a brick factory); Malekshahr of Isfahan, a community for 20,000, which was designed and partially constructed by 1979; the Middle East headquarters of Dupont/ Polyacryl was designed and supervised, completed in 1978; over 100 projects of conventional buildings ranging from high-rise to single residence.

Geltaftan Foundation/ Cal-Earth: 10376 Shangri La Avenue, Hesperia CA 92345.
Tel: (760) 244-0614 Fax: (760) 244-2201
Email: calearth@aol.com
website: http://www.calearth.org

LECTURES AND WORKSHOPS CONDUCTED BY KHALILI INCLUDE:
Princeton University/ Princeton, New Jersey
Space Studies Institute/ Princeton, New Jersey
International Space University/ MIT, Boston, Mass.
Carnegie Mellon Institute/ Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico
National Aeronautics and Space Administration/ W D.C.
Ohio State University/ Columbus, Ohio
California Art Education Assoc. Conf./ San Diego, Calif.
Ball State University/ Muncie, Indiana
Rensslaer Polytechnic Institute/ Troy, New York
Catholic University of America/Washington, D.C.
North Dakota State University/ Fargo, North Dakota
University of Wisconsin/ Milwaukee, Wisconsin
University of Arizona/ Tucson, Arizona
Pitzer College/ Claremont, California
Claremont Graduate School/ Claremont, California
California Polytechnic Institute/ San Luis Obispo
California Polytechnic Institute/ Pomona
University of California/ Riverside
University of California/ Santa Barbara
University of California/ Los Angeles
Southern California Institute of Architecture
Southern California Ceramic Association
Ojai Foundation/ Ojai, California
Institute of American Indian Arts/ Santa Fe, New Mexico
Eight Northern Pueblos/ San Juan, New Mexico
College of Santa Fe/ Santa Fe, New Mexico
Rough Rock, Navajo Reservation/ Arizona
Tsaili Community College/ Navajo Reservation, Arizona
Lindisfarne Institute/ Creston, Colorado
University of Baja/ Mexico
San Jose/ Costa Rica
University of Cairo/ Egypt
University of Tehran
United Nations (regional conference) Tehran/ Iran
Eos Institute/Laguna, California
American Institute of Architects/Los Angeles
American Institute of Architects/Inland Empire
Arcosanti/Arizona

TELEVISION AND RADIO PRESENTATIONS
Channel 28, Los Angeles, Public Broadcasting System
Channel 28, Los Angeles, “FUTURE” PBS
Channel 2, Los Angeles, a CBS Station
Channels 9, 4, and 8, Los Angeles
KPFK Radio, Los Angeles
Group W, Westinghouse Cable TV/ Sierra Madre, Cal..
KCST, International Channel, Los Angeles, California
Voice of America English and Farsi Services
BBC World Service, London
CNN News
BBC TV
NBC
CBS
PBS
Discovery channel
National Geographic
and numerous other newspaper, magazines and online publications such as Space.com.

EXHIBITIONS
Institute of American Indian Arts Museum, Santa Fe, NM
Centre Georges Pompidou/ Paris, France
Museum of Contemporary Arts/ Tehran, Iran
Various Universities and Educational Galeries in U.S.

for a more complete profile, please search Google.com – Nader Khalili

“Hesperia Domes pass Seismic Test….Earth Architecture has made it to the big leagues” Victor Valley Daily Press

“We think this design has the potential of revolutionizing the housing industry! said Hesperia Mayor.” Hesperia Resorter

“Look inside the demonstration houses he’s built and you see spacious beauty. They meet all building codes, are energy efficient, weathertight, and so solid they passed the most gruelling stress tests. “- CNN World News

“The building was stronger than the testing equipment .”” – (Hesperia building official)
“People are coming from all over the world to Hesperia, California, to learn this simple way of building.” – (Hesperia Mayor) – CNN World News

“The buildings are cool in summer and warm in winter, probably the most environmentally friendly homes you’ll ever come across….. ” -BBC (British Broadcasting Corp.)

“To this visionary architect the earth houses… are the obvious response to 21st century housing shortages, deforestation, the energy crunch and even the physical sickness brought on by the toxic exhalations of modern building materials. ” – Orange County Register

” Cutting Edge Housing: In Hesperia Architect Nader Khalili is showing off his sandbag home… Malibu architect Eric Lloyd Wright, after viewing it said it’s just the kind of organic architecture his grandfather talked about, and engineering tests show it’ll hold up to earthquakes…”- Los Angeles Times

“We haven’t had people with this kind of vision since Frank Lloyd Wright died’, said Hesperia redevelopment manager….” – Victor Valley Daily Press

“A Hesperia Architect has seen the future of affordable housing.” – San Bernadino Sun

“His hope is to create truly low-cost housing in many parts of the world.” – AIA Journal : Architecture

“The Excellence in Technology Award, California Council/American Institute ofArchitects, went to him for his work.” – Los Angeles Times

“Without this spirit of pioneering no thoroughgoing changes can take place to create anenvironmentally harmonious architecture.”- LA Architect

“…Creating a city from the dust under their feet using a variety of earthen construction techniques.”- Automated Housing

“Making Bricks without Clay: Sandbags and barbed wire, often the materials of war, havebecome the building blocks of peace at Cal-Earth in Hesperia.”- Daily Press

“…a family should be able to walk to a piece of land and build themselves a homewithout timber, steel or concrete. Just the earth alone should suffice.”- Ceramic Monthly

“… a vision that could be of considerable value to architecture in development”- Mimar

“His architecture has a quasi-mystic character…”- Centre Georges Pompidou

“It came about because of the sun, because of the wind, because of the earth”- Permaculture Journal

“A revolution in the traditional architecture of Iran…” Museum Contemporary Art, Tehran

“It is cool in the summer, warm in the winter, water-and fireproof, and beautiful.”- L.A. Weekly

“Earth Architecture recieves a warm welcome from the third world to outer space.”- House and Garden

“Khalili is also at work on prefab ceramic vaults, modular units that can be trucked and linked together easily. And sometimes his vision goes much, much further: he’s worked with NASA on scenarios in which the moon’s soil could be melted, then, after molding, fused into structures by concentrated rays of the sun.”- Mother Jones

“A novel ‘magma structure’ concept presented by him…proposed melting mounds of lunar soil with focused sunlight to create a pliable material that could be sculptured into facilities …at the NASA symposium, ‘Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century.’ “- Aviation Week & Space Tech.

“Khalili’s perspective on lunar architecture provides an interesting and thought-provoking contrast to ‘orthodox’ scenarios.”- NASA’s Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, editor W.W.Mendell.

“…he draws from thousands of years of traditional architecture in his effort to build modern, affordable, sustainable housing…” – RAN/Turner Foundation – Cut Waste not Trees

“… in Hesperia, the houses were beautiful, well-insulated, structurally rigid, and cost almost nothing to build.” – Los Angeles Times

Lunar, Martian, and planetary Architecture

Click here for Lunar Structures Generated and Shielded with On-Site Materials

MAGMA, CERAMIC, AND FUSED ADOBE STRUCTURES GENERATED IN SITU

E. Nader Khalili

The accumulated human knowledge of “universal elements” can be integrated with space-age technology to serve human needs on Earth; its timeless materials and timeless principles can also help achieve humanity’s quest beyond this planet. Two such areas of knowledge are in earth architecture and in ceramics, which could be the basis for a breakthrough – in scales, forms, and functions – in low gravity fields and anhydrous-vacuum conditions. With the added missing link of the element of fire (heat), traditional earthen forms can be generated on other celestial bodies, such as the Moon and Mars, in the form of magma structure, ceramic structure, and fused adobe structure. Ceramic modules can also be generated in situ in space by utilizing lunar or meteoritic resources.

TIMELESS MATERIALS – TIMELESS PRINCIPLES
The traditional techniques of building without centering, i.e., leaning-arches, corbelling, and dry-packing can have greater applications in lower gravity fields, as well as higher material strength, than in the restricted conditions of these techniques’ terrestrial origins. At the same time, the “high-tech” heat-obtaining skills of solar heat, plasma, microwave, and melting penetrators can provide ceramic-earth shelters and appropriate technology for both developed and underdeveloped nations. Through understanding and utilizing the principles of “Yekta-i-Arkan” – unity of elements – integration of tradition and technology in harmony with the laws of nature is possible at many levels of microcosm and macrocosm.

MAGMA STRUCTURE
Lunar base structures can be generated and cast, based on the natural space formations created by magma-lava flow such as tubes and voids. By utilizing existing lunar contours or by forming mounds of lunar soil to desired interior spaces, structures can be cast in situ with the generated magma. Either way, the upper layers of the mounds and the apex, consisting of unprocessed lunar resources, can generate magma flow with focused sunlight (Criswell, 1976). Ceramic-glass (Grodzka, 1976) and/or other lunar fluxes may be added to the main composite for lowering the melting temperature. Basalt melting point, 900’ to 1200’C, can be lowered to glass composites’ melting point with added lunar flux. As the molten composite flows with the low gravity crawl, the lava crust can be formed in spiral, circular, or multi-patterned rib troughs on the mound. A controlled flowing magma can cast single- or double-curvature monolithic shell structures. The underlying loose soil mound can then be excavated and packed over the monolithic shell for radiation/thermal/impact shielding (Carrier, 1976). Since high depth of necessary soil coverage over the structure is detrimental to both architectural flexibility and harmonious interaction of inner and outer space environments, the variable magma viscosity can be utilized to reduce the estimated 2-m thickness (Land, 1984) of the packed soil protections depending on material composites and attained temperature degree/time parameters. The viscosity of the generated magma and the packed regolith can counterbalance internal atmospheric pressure, and the semi-glazed interior can provide an airtight membrane. The pliability of the magma medium can present new dimensions in the creation of sculptured interiors for the ultimate functional utilization of the generated spaces. It also offers an aesthetic dimension, since the molded forms conform to human generic non-angular tendencies. The organic material of magma and the possibilities for ceramic glazing of the interior will open a new era in integration of the arts to scales unattainable for humans under the limits of terrestrial conditions. Magma materials, basaltic in particular, have produced agricultural soils and with suitable atmospheric conditions have proved to produce vegetation. Plant successions have taken place in magma-lava metamorphosis in terrestrial lava tubes and voids. Many examples of flora can be seen in old lava beds of the volcanic regions of the world. Similar conditions will be present in lunar magma structures when the temperature- moisture ambient exists for a life-supporting environment. Thus, common spaces of lunar bases could be designated as mini-agricultural zones that could both generate suitable atmosphere to sustain human life and provide supplemental nutrition resources. Natural lava structures, such as Craters of the Moon National Monument, can provide case studies in the design development stages. Research is needed to determine material composites, magma crust formation patterns, and span limitations.

PREFABRICATED MAGMA MEMBERS
Conventional structures can be built with magma in lunar base complexes by prefabricating structural members. Beams, columns, panels, and connections can be prefabricated with generated magma composed of unprocessed lunar resources fused with solar heat. Magma-lava solidified structural members can be reinforced with fibers or reinforcing mesh produced from lunar resources. The precast panels and members can be post-tensioned by tendons or fused with spot mortar composed of similar magma materials. Precast magma and ceramic members can be shaped to fit desired forms and functions. Lunar soil troughs and fused regolith layer form work can be utilized for casting systems.

CERAMIC STRUCTURE
The use of shielding ceramic tiles on the space shuttle points to the potential of ceramic materials for lunar and space applications. Ceramic structures of limited spans can be cast in situ on lunar sites; they can also be generated in space. On lunar sites, a centrifugally gyrating platform – a giant potter’s wheel – featuring adjustable rims with high flanges can be utilized for the dynamic casting of ceramic and stoneware structures. A mass of lunar resources can be “thrown” in the stationary center zone of the platform and melted by focused sunlight to flow to the periphery rotating zone and cast desired shapes. Known lunar resources can also be spun on the same platform to create tensile fiber; by integrating the two operations, monolithic ceramic structures with tensile fiber reinforcing layers can be generated. Double-shell ceramic structures sandwiched with space and/or packed with insulating materials can provide radiation, thermal, and impact shielding. Such units can be used singularly for lunar camps or combined around a common hub and/or spine to form a lunar base complex. The centrifugal platform system with its adjustable rim flanges can be utilized for lunar base infrastructure parts: pipes, ducts, and tunnel rings. Prefabricated sections for utility sheds can also be formed in single- or double-shell modules. In space, a centrifugally gyrating platform moving in three dimensions can create more variations of ceramic structured modules than is possible in terrestrial or gravity fields. Attached to a space station, the gyrating platform can generate ceramic modules in situ. The resources for ceramic structures can either be of lunar or martian origin or, in space, from captured meteoroids.

FUSED ADOBE STRUCTURE
Lunar base structures can be constructed in situ utilizing lunar adobe blocks produced from unprocessed lunar soil or the by-products of industrial mining operations. Lunar adobe blocks can be formed by the fusion of lunar resources with solar heat. It is anticipated that vacuum conditions and the essentially zero-moisture content of lunar soils should significantly reduce thermal diffusity (Rowley, 1984). Lunar adobe blocks can be used to build structures without form work, employing the earth-architecture techniques of dry-packing, corbelling, and leaning-arches (Khalili, 1986). The low gravity field and vacuum conditions, which allow for a smaller angle of repose and enhance lunar soil cohesion (Blacic, 1984), will give greater opportunity, in the case of the leaning-arch technique, for larger spans and shallower vaults and domes. The same advantages will cause the soil-packed covering to follow desirable contours for more flexible interaction of interior and exterior space and solar orientation. Fused spot-mortar or lunar dust sprayed at fusion point temperature can be used to bond the blocks in medium and large span structures. Arches, domes, vaults, and apses can be constructed to fit the contours of the moonscape; these curved surfaces can create sun and shade zones that are functionally desirable. For functional or aesthetic reasons, total or partial interior ceramic glazing of lunar adobe structures can be done with lunar resources containing glass (Heiken, 1976) and other fluxes by solar heat fusion or plasma technology. The difficulty of mechanical separation of lunar dust can be solved by the bulk use of the soil at its powder stage, involving pre-heating the dust and guniting it on the structure at the point of fusion, The techniques of earth-architecture and the human skills that have evolved to deal with natural materials and to meet the historic challenges of harsh environments and terrestrial gravity can put future men and women in direct touch with the lunar world. Discovering suitable dimensions of blocks, techniques of construction, and appropriate material composites while developing their own sense of unity with the lunar entity can be the start of human independence from Mother Earth, creating shelters in the heavens. The organic growth of lunar architecture, with its own materials and equilibrium of elements can be used to initiate an indigenous and ecologically balanced human environment without damaging the heavenly body. On Earth, one of the main tasks of architects, engineers, and builders has historically been nothing but winning the fight against gravity; now and in the future, the chance for victory on the Moon will be six times as great as it has been here on Earth.

INITIAL IN SITU CONSTRUCTION
Locating a lunar lava tube may well be one of the first stages of setting up a lunar base site. Lava tubes can provide the most expedient and economical way of starting an indigenous lunar architecture. Terrestrial lava tubes are the best design model for exploring the development of appropriate life-supporting environments in lunar lava tubes. Either at the initial stage or in the following phases of lunar base construction, locating and utilizing lava tubes can be of great value. An immediate construction system for the lunar base, after the initial camp setup, can utilize unprocessed lunar resources in a non-mechanized construction system. This system uses existing rocks of different sizes and dry-pack techniques. The low gravity field and higher rock fracture strength give added advantages for larger spans of corbelling and leaning-arch earth-structure systems. Meteoroid and/or indigenous rock structures covered with lunar soil for radiation and thermal shielding can provide immediate, non- life-supporting shelters. Structures built with the same techniques can be fitted with an airtight fabric mesh for human habitation (Blacic, 1984).

PAVING AND LUNAR DUST STABILIZATION
The lunar soil, with a particle size of about 70 microns, which adheres to everything and chums up with vehicular traffic, needs to be stabilized (Carrier and Mitchell, 1976). Fusion of the top layers of lunar soil with focused sunlight can form a magma-lava crust to arrest unstable lunar dust. Spacecraft landing pads, vehicular traffic roads, and pedestrian walkways can be paved with solar heat by on-spot fusion of the top layers, penetrating to desirable depth. Unprocessed lunar soil can be fused by solar energy via a manual or automatic and remote control “paving” vehicle. Inappropriate regolith areas can be topped with a layer of appropriate lunar soil before its fusion. For low temperature fusion, lunar fluxes can be sprayed on top of the soil prior to introducing solar heat. Paving surfaces of heavier traffic areas can be constructed from composites fused to ceramic and stoneware consistency with desired colors and textures. As a general rule, it is the use of the universal principles of the terrestrial element of fire (heat) – the solar rays – that must be thought of at the forefront of mediums and materials for planetary base design and construction. Adhering to the philosophy of the use of local resources, human skills, and solar energy, we can achieve our quests on the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We must learn from the accumulated human knowledge of earth-architecture, which has sheltered humans in the harshest conditions. Each person going to the Moon, regardless of his or her work, must be aware of these fundamental principles and techniques to participate in creating an indigenous architecture to form their communities, not only because of economic benefit but also because of spiritual reward. As an old Persian saying goes, “Every man and woman is born a doctor and a builder – to heal and shelter himself.”

Acknowledgments. The Geltaftan Group, consisting of Manouchehr Sedehi, Mahmoud Hejazi, Ezzatollah Salmanzadeh, Ali Gourang, Ostad Asghar, and A. A. Khorramshahi, supported my work in earth-and-fire developments. Eyal Perchik, Alessandra Runyon, Tsosie Tsinhnahjinnie, Steven Haines, Ellwood Pickering II, Barclay Totten, students at the Southern California Institute of Architecture, have helped advance my research work.

REFERENCES
Blacic J.D. (1984) Structural properties of lunar rock materials under anhydrous, hard vacuum conditions (abstract). In Papers Presented to the Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, p. 76. NASA/ Johnson Space Center, Houston. Carrier W. D. III and Mitchell J. K. (1976) Geotechnical engineering on the Moon (abstract) In Lunar Science VII, Special Session Abstracts, pp. 92-95. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
Criswell D. R. (editor) (1976) Lunar Science VII, Special Session Abstracts (on Lunar Utilization), pp. iii-vi. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
Grodzka P. (1976) Processing lunar soil for structural materials (abstract). In Lunar Science VII, Special Session Abstracts, pp. 114-115. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
Heiken G. (1976) The regolith as a source of materials (abstract). In Lunar Science VII, Special Session Abstracts, pp. 48-52. Lunar Science Institute, Houston.
Khalili E. N. (1986) Ceramic Houses. Harper and Row, San Francisco. In press.
Land P. (1984) Lunar base design (abstract). In Papers Presented to the Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, p. 102. NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston.
Rowley J. C. (1984) In-situ rock melting applied to lunar base construction and for exploration drilling and coring on the moon (abstract). In Papers Presented to the Symposium on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 2lst Century, p. 77. NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston.

Hesperia, California MUSEUM SANDBAG GALLERY MUSEUM RUMI DOME GALLERY

On April 19th, Earth Day weekend 1996, the City of Hesperia Recreation and Park District broke ground to construct the Hesperia Museum and Nature Center, the first of it’s kind in the world, legally permitted to be built totally of earthen construction, as part of the Desert Village, Rodeo/Arena and other futuristic programs in Hesperia.

The complex of fourteen domes and two vaults in earth and ceramics is designed by internationally renowned architect and author Nader Khalili, founder of the California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture (Cal-Earth), who has devoted the last 20 years to developing simple disaster safe Earth Architecture technologies along with his associates and apprentices. For these he has won acclaim from NASA, CCAIA, and ASCE, for his proposals for building on the moon and Mars and worked with space science organizations in the U.S.

The project was approved by the Hesperia Building Department in consultation with the ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials) after successful static and dynamic load testing for wind, snow and earthquakes on full scale prototypes at Cal-Earth in Hesperia. The extensive engineering analysis and design, and the tests, were devised by Phill Vittore, a world specialist in dome engineering and structural design.

The architect’s innovations of Superadobe (mile-long sandbags and barbed wire construction) and Ceramic Houses (fired in-place adobe structures) are seen as solutions to global deforestation by organizations such as the Turner Foundation and Rex Foundation (Grateful Dead) who have lent their sponsorship along with other organizations to work at Cal-Earth.

The United Nations with whom Khalili has built housing prototypes usimg these technologies see these as the answer to affordable housing worldwide and emergency relief housing because of their efficient simplicity.

The Hesperia Museum and Nature Center sets the most important precedent for building with earth in the American fast-track mainstream in a harsh climate. They will be built with standard contractors’ equipment and skills, by community participation, and by the Laura Huxley Teenage Program (Our Ultimate Investment Foundation) who sponsors teenagers at Cal-Earth.

The project demonstrates how, with the simplest of elements, Earth, Wind, Water, and Fire, and with the ancient earth architecture techniques developed in the deserts of Iran and the Middle East, and traditional cultures from the Native Americans of the far west to China in the far east, whole communities could be developed in total harmony with the environment.

The process which has led to the permitting and building of this historic project with the support of Hesperia’s progressive City Council, Recreation and Park District, and Building and Safety, show that the American pioneering spirit still realize a vision of the new century.

“Hesperia Domes pass Seismic Test….Earth Architecture has made it to the big leagues” Victor Valley Daily Press

“`We think this design has the potential of revolutionizing the housing industry!’ said Hesperia Mayor.” Hesperia Resorter

” Cutting Edge Housing: In Hesperia Architect Nader Khalili is showing off his sandbag home… Malibu architect Eric Lloyd Wright, after viewing it said it’s just the kind of organic architecture his grandfather talked about, and engineering tests show it’ll hold up to earthquakes…” Los Angeles Times

“`We haven’t had people with this kind of vision since Frank Lloyd Wright died’, said Hesperia redevelopment manager….” Victor Valley Daily Press

“A Hesperia Architect has seen the future of affordable housing.” San Bernadino Sun

“His hope is to create truly low-cost housing in many parts of the world.” AIA Journal : Architecture

“The Excellence in Technology Award, California Council/American Institute of Architects, went to him for his work.” Los Angeles Times

“Without this spirit of pioneering no thoroughgoing changes can take place to create an environmentally harmonious architecture.” LA Architect

“…Creating a city from the dust under their feet using a variety of earthen construction techniques.” Automated Housing

“Making Bricks without Clay: Sandbags and barbed wire, often the materials of war, have become the building blocks of peace at Cal-Earth in Hesperia.” Daily Press

“…a family should be able to walk to a piece of land and build themselves a home without timber, steel or concrete. Just the earth alone should suffice.” Ceramic Monthly

“… a vision that could be of considerable value to architecture in development” Mima

Vaulted House

The 3-Vaulted house prototype has been in development since the mid-1980’s by Nader Khalili to allow the maximum space, light, and interior ventilation, while using the traditional form of the vault. The spaciousness of the interior design derives from this pattern of 3 offset vaults which allow a maximum view through the house’s open plan area, and from the height of the vault. The 3-vault system can be combined with domes and apses, or repeated back to back to form a variety of aesthetic and efficiently planned house designs.
A prototype 3-Vaulted house has been tested and approved for California’s severe earthquake codes and natural elements, in the harsh climate of the Mojave desert (over 100 degree F summer temperatures, freezing winters, flash floods, high speed wind, and the highest US earthquake zone 4).
The universality of the material and design has caused these houses to be considered for the moon and Mars by NASA scientists interested in in-situ utilization of planetary resources.

“Earth One”, the prototype 3 bedroom Superadobe house is now under construction at Cal-Earth.

Some features of the Earth One house and 3-vaulted designs are:

View through depth of two vaults increases a sense of interior space.

The offest vaults eliminate the need for corridors.

Simple design based on repetition of the single vault design unit simplifies construction.

More vaults can be added at a later time.

Variety can be introduced through the placement of windows and other small elements such as niches.

Arches and vaults are inherently beautiful, especially if repeated in a series.

A two storey wind-scoop faces prevailing summer breezes for cooling.

The vaulted curve of the roof, combined with the sun’s path overhead, creates sun and shade zones which encourage circular air movement inside the house.

Play of light and shadow minimizes the need for decoration.

The combination fireplace and wind-scoop enhances both heating and cooling functions (also called energy tower).

To review and purchase the “Earth One” blueprint set with 12 page specification see the Cal-Earth Products page. Additional plan variations start with a 1 or 2 bedroom house and grow to 4 or more bedrooms by adding vault elements. Dome elements can also be added for circular living spaces, meditation room, performance or music room, courtyard, pool, water cistern, root cellar and so on.
The environmentally friendly design uses on-site earth (or any kind of earth) with 99% wood/forest saving in contrast to conventional building systems. It has non-toxic interior finishes, utilizes solar and wind energy for passive cooling and heating. The self-help system directed towards U.N. requirements, for affordable housing with savings in material costs. It can also be integrated with standard contractors’ equipment and pumps. There is design flexibility for interior layout and artistic exterior finishes.

Emergency Shelter

EMERGENCY SHELTER
A spin off from Khalili’s Lunar/Mars habitat designs

Cal-Earth Institute is happy to humbly dedicate the following two pages to the overwhelming requests related to the latest series of disasters in the world. It is meant as a start to providing guidance for human shelter. Click here for the 2-page “Emergency Sandbag Shelter” pdf file. (Get Acrobat Reader) Cal-Earth Emergency Shelter Village Images

water in the boat
is the death of the boat
water under the boat
and the boat’s afloat
– Rumi

Natural disasters are human created disasters blamed on nature.

After a fire, hurricane, flood, or earthquake we immediately declare that this was a natural disaster, an act of God. Then we ask if we have insurance, or how soon will the goverment or U.N. come to help? And these are repeated and echoed in the media around the globe over and over again. But these are not the right questions. The right question is why did our house burn, fall apart, or get swept away? And when we have the chance to re-build it, why should we build it the same way and in the same place? Ultimately “natural disasters” are human created disasters blamed on nature.

The human impact in nature and its effects: pollution, deforestation, land mismanagement, the green house effect, and more, will undoubtedly accelerate the rate of disasters in the future. Added to that are the man-made disasters: millions of displaced humans, wars and human aggression and act of terrorism with its incalculable damage to human life and property. There is a sense of urgency to educate ourselves and our children to act more in harmony with nature, rather than insisting on dominating and interrupting the environmental process. As well as urgency to awaken to a new set of questions where we, and not nature or God, are to be blamed.

We must also prepare ourselves for the inevitable disasters. One of the best ways to shield against fire, flood, and storm may as well be with earth, water, air and fire. Nature does that itself. The equilibrium of the natural elements are the natural balancing acts among these universal elements.

To build simple emergency and safe structures in our backyards, to give us maximum safety with minimum environmental impact, we must choose natural materials and, like nature itself, build with minimum materials to create maximum space, like a beehive or a sea shell. The strongest structures in nature which work in tune with gravity, friction, minimum exposure and maximum compression, are arches, domes and vault forms. And they can be easily learned and utilize the most available material on earth: Earth.

Here, using a simple sandbag-and-barbed-wire technology, named Superadobe, designed by architect Nader Khalili, and developed by his associates and apprentices this documentary video shows how to:

# Use the materials of war (sandbags and barbed wire) to create a safe shelter in most regions of the globe as well as in your backyard.

# Utilize minimum amounts of purchased product and maximum amounts of the free earth under your feet.

# Participate in a family or community activity by building a shelter, or a sustainable community.

# Create a shelter with maximum protection against natural and man-made disasters.

United Nations Visit

In July of 2001 a visit from the United Nations headed by the Director of UNDP Emergency Response Division with his team from New York, participated in a Cal-Earth workshop for these Emergency Shelters; they slept in one to experience their quality. Their very positive response was recorded in the Reuters World News Agency article.

Cal-Earth Emergency Shelter Village Images

Superadobe Technology is designed by Nader Khalili, engineering by P. .J. Vittore, models of which have been constructed and tested for the City of Hesperia, California, Building and Safety Department, in consultation with I.C.B.O. (International Conference of Building Officials), in the forms of arches, vaults, and domes between 1993 and 1996. These successfully passed the California required codes for the models.

Superadobe is a patented system at the service of humanity. It is offered free to the owner builder. Licensing is required for commercial use.

The video “Emergency Shelter”, a documentary, is produced to be used as part of a set of learning tools developed and used during the apprenticeship training program at Cal-Earth Institute (such as the compass for the dome’s curvature, hands-on techniques, and so on). These can teach you, step by step, how to build. To learn how to build your emergency structure, you must begin with a small practice dome, a storage shed in your backyard for example, to understand hands-on all practical aspects of the tools and materials, after which you may have the skills to increase the size of your shelter.

By practicing to build the eight foot interior diameter dome we hope that you will learn how to shelter yourself in an emergency situation with some basic materials that can be stored in your closet or carried in your car trunk.

The students shown building in this video had never worked with earth before, but they built their 8 ft. diameter dome in a total of ten hours. They were participants of Cal-Earth’s apprentice course and were taught by a teacher. The students added niches, storage, plastering, and doors in the following days.

And in the following months Khalili, his associates and apprentices built many variations of small shelters each 120 sq. ft. or less in floor area which you can visit at Cal-Earth Institute.
Cal-Earth Emergency Shelter Village Images

Link to website: http://www.calearth.org/index.htm

Source: http://loveforlife.com.au/content/08/08/04/cal-earth-california-institute-earth-art-architecture-emergency-shelters-vaulted-ho

Save the Kimberley

We are an joining forces here working to educate the public and support community in protecting the unique environment and culture of the Kimberley. The Kimberley is one of the world’s last great wilderness areas and deserves real protection.

The Kimberley is currently under threat with a range of short-sighted industrial proposals threatening the sustainable tourism, Indigenous land management and pastoral future of the region. Most pressing is a proposal to build a massive LNG processing plant at James Price Point (JPP) 50km North of Broome.
The Kimberley Coast would suffer irreparable damage both environmentally and culturally under such a proposal with all its associated industrial impacts including shipping traffic, reef blasting, dredging and pollution – all in the breeding and nursery area for the worlds largest remaining population of Humpback whales.
The State Government has initiated compulsory acquisition of Indigenous land at James Price Point for the Woodside lead project in a move that has met with outrage across Australia and the world. Meanwhile the joint venture partners Shell, Chevron, BP and BHP continue to have reservations understanding that THERE ARE ALTERNATIVES – Browse basin gas could be:
1. Left in the ground, or
2. Piped to the Pilbara where there is established industrial infastructure, or
3. Processed via offshore floating technology under development.

Save the Kimberley does not oppose development. Save the Kimberley supports appropriate development that looks after people and the environment of the Kimberley.

THERE IS NO NEED TO PUT THE PRISTINE KIMBERLEY COAST AT RISK

See the protest today, latest media coverage – http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2011/07/05/3261383.htm?site=perth
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/

Search youtube or here is a clip from Tuesday –
 www.youtube.com/watch?v=r34uDl8EqCY&feature=player_embedded#at=14 7th July James Price Point blockade.wmv

Save the Kimberley groups
Send letters from the site http://www.savethekimberley.com/
http://www.givenow.com.au/savethekimberley

http://www.environskimberley.org.au/

Get Up Grass Roots Action For Australia – 
Vote for our cause to get assistance from this group that gets results – http://suggest.getup.org.au/forums/60819-getup-campaign-suggestions/suggestions/1896595-stopping-proposed-gas-refinery-at-james-price-poin

http://www.thepetitionsite.com/

My poetry n lyrics, feedback n sharing welcome

My poems 

All My poems 

Prayer From Me An Australian Aborigine….

Goodmornin World and those of us on the other side,
What another beautiful day,
The earth, the water and the sky,
as it was in the beginning of time.
The children of ancestors, 
so strong and wise, 
we still learning bout peaces prize,
Please keep us from pain and resentment, 
Our children smiling
And our old people contented
We pray to be grateful
And give thanks for life

By Kaiyu Bayles

You go! 

Yes u got pain sista girl
Loosin your mama ain’t easy
Split up from your grandma well that’s real hard too!
What happens when your not safe changes everything about you
Sayin goodbye to old friends and babies too
But plenty of people before you made it through

Your allowed to cry, it’s been tough
On your own u need more than luck
Take that pain sis its yours,and love it
Yeas you could have been this and that
But you can’t take that back
Look after yourself – relax

No fears with the tears
Let them flow
Choking n smoking
Feeling yourself grow
It’s ok Sis – let it go

Look back on pain and happiness
Live in the moment
Create that bliss
And remember without the blues
 you wouldn’t be you

By Kaiyu Bayles

WHY CANT I JUST B ME 

Why cant I just be Kaiyu
Why cant I just be me
All this stress n responsibility
I just wanna be free

Yaraka, Mara, Jyda, Kia, Binowee
They all me
Alison, Laina N Dee
Let me Be, You go, Be free

Granny here now, I’m feelin sad
Don’t know what’s goin on. N feelin bad
Everythings goin to be all right
Just one more night

By Kaiyu Bayles

Take A Moment

To think about the clothes you’re in
Are You Comfortable
To think about that house you call home
Is it really a Castle?
To think about the family you’re in
How happy is everyone and why?

Take a moment
Before you leave today
Think
What makes you happy?
And what does not
Because change
Starts with you…so
Take a moment

Greet the day
Just as our ancestors did
Speak words of kindness
To ourselves too
Heal your pain
Let yourself free
Eat the foods of the earth
Swim in her oceans and lakes
Say I love you at least once a day

Take a moment
Remember we are all great
Free yourself from the chains
How can you be?
If you’re not happy
Go back to being that free spirited child
We all deserve to be free
We can and will make it right… Just
Take moment

Love the skin your in
Discover your true talents
Practice Gratitude and fewer attitudes
Love Peace More and Hate War Less
Still having trouble? Well that’s cool too
When you c that child smiling
That’s what it’s all about
Yes there’s negativity all around
But change is a coming
But first we all have to

Take a moment
Own our pain, heal it
Breath, Lets not exist but live life
Hold on to your loved ones
Lead the way for all
Let love and positivity rule
Not politicians, jobs and school
Let’s recreate true happiness
For one and all
Take a moment
.. ..
More answers lay deep in our beautiful lands
Turn to our brothers and sisters who carry the true way forward
Harmony, balance and respect for great and small
Since the beginning
This can be ours now
Handed down through you and me

Take a moment
We will move forward soon
We have to dig deeper in time
Make those ancient laws yours and mine
Teach them to our children, communities and countries
Are we heading for destruction as 1 people?
Have the answers for a real proper society been left in time?

Take a moment
For the future of all
Maintain principals that stand tall

Take this moment right now

By Kaiyu Bayles

Reverse It

Reverse It… please,

wearing rags, clothes I mean,

happiness hardly seen,

Loosing sight of whats right, learnin nothing in schools,

Talking English, Living in houses and Jails, no good rules

Money supposed to be important, people always fight

Na Not me, I’m Indigenous to Thee

We belong to beauty possessed by you and me, but now we all crying

All together was Mother Earths creations, laying, walking and flying,

Words of wisdom, love in everyone, peace always a given

Free we was, off our home we were driven

I can feel the pain and the sorrow,

What will come tomorrow?

Whiteman, yellow man, black man need to make a stand….

Make their ways count, discover the lors we have for this land

Save us all….  No more Jails, Housing estates, highways, murders and rapes

No more Red tape…..  Reverse it Please!

We might all be free, not just the old aborigine

Kaiyu Moura

Let’s Indigenize it all ay?

My poems Freedom

Eyes open mind shut
Gonna start the day? Nuh
Mumma’s gone, granny two,
N the population, we 2.2
No more boomerang no more spear
We reachen for the powder, yarndi, n beer
The chains remain, see the pain
Hear the silence, no rain?
Pain and suffering day after day
Old n young searchin for a new way
Gotta organise, stick together and stay strong
No more these fullas, doin us all wrong
We know what ought to be done
Let’s lead the way and on the way we goinn have some 

Freedom was taken but we can get it back
Love that skin your in, the family your in we not slack
Freedom – we got the red yellow and black
Live life to the fullest, with the finest, never crack
Freedom- 4 one an alll – back on track
Good times and good friends
Together we can be, we gots to be
Like the wind, birds, ocean and sea
FREE

Indiginise your mind, hear the music
Free your body, move your feet
Dance with mother natures mystic beat
Speack your tongue,
live with love!
Listen to the echoes of the past
We gotta get freedom fast
Cancer, tumurs and heart disease
Animals disappearing and cutting our trees
Time to change the fight, no more struggle
Ask them fullas do the right
Not just by us, by their ole fullas,
They must!

Disabled by physicals, racism, hate or greed
Freedom’s what we all need

Empowered by the idea of freedom in every way for all – achieved through the concepts of indigenization.  Hit a nerve?  Let’s brainstorm
 
By Kaiyu Bayles

My poems Wheres the tribe?

Where is my people? Where is my tribe?
My bodies giving in, tell me their alive.
How many are crying? Tired of trying?
Forgotten people, forgotten time? Not in my mind.

Where is my people? Where is my tribe?
I got to get there, drive, swim or fly.
Ther’ll be no more ear ache, from no-good words
And no eating this food, feeling worse afterwards.

Where is my people? Where is my tribe?
Got you in my heart and freedom’s in our path.
Connecting back up with one another
The animals, our ways and the land, our mother.

Here is my people. Here is my tribe.
Human being roaming free, the ole spirit inside of me.
Ready? Our season is near. Just like our wildflower
With the might and strength of our creator,
We shall bloom a new era.
Breathe…Be at Ease…Believe…

By Kaiyu Bayles

My lyrics, i need a bit of help with getting the message out.

Deep B.L.A.C.K Songlist

Is It Always Going To Feel This Way?

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

This our Island home
Free n easy we roam.
Disrupted 100,000 years of peace
For convicts and their police.
You’ve no jurisdiction,
With a history like science fiction.
Cause we have listened, we have learned, 
We have laughed, cried and yearned…
So this Westminster system with no jurisdiction
Is about to be overturned.

Confusioned, disillusion,  
where’s the rebelution?
Keep a check on how we feel,
Are we all keeping real?
Keep checkin our relation
Cause from nation to nation
We are all racin to nowhere land and
We need to understand…

Because, it’s not meant to be like this
Bein helpless
Not meant to feel like this
Clenchin our fists. 
Kneeling and praying each day,
Is it always going to feel this way?

(Language)

GOORI’S!!!!!!!!!!
Rise up, Rise up, Rise up.
Sovereign people still today
For a new day, for our old ways.
Time to thrive,  we have survived.
Even modern day genocide.
Colonisation, segregation, assimilation and  now reconciliation…
Got all our ears achin!
So let’s go walkabout n coorooboree now..
Dreamin’s alla time – anytime, 

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

 It’s not meant to be like this
Lacking a mothers kiss
Not meant to feel like this
Lil joyfulness
If we kneel n pray, for it to go away
 Is it always goin to feel this way?

This land where you stand needs man to understand
This is sacred land,
Everywhere you walk, sit or stand,
Our people been there.
Home 2 da rainbow serpent and red sand
Law, histories, song and dance.
It’s coming back from the surface
To put an end to this circus.
We know a better way
From living in a better day.
Now Sssshhh, while we watch our children play.
There ain’t no mystery
We governed, we tilled and documented history.
In 2011 you can’t get away with Invasion
Put an end to this illegal occupation, of a nation, 
Stop rations, listen,  be patient.
Kicking off the heads of our next generation,
Now still victims of corporate rascists.
We the key ingredient!
All this talk, anybody meanin it?
Experience and understanding is seldom 
Yet knowledge plus consequences, equals, wisdom.
Don’t it?

Not meant to be like this,
Life is politics
Not meant to feel like this
Bunch of lunatics at it,
If we try a different way
Is it always goin to feel this way?

(Language)

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

No, No, No,
It’s not to be this way
Our spirit still strong today
It’s not meant to feel this way
Sing, dance, shout now n play
The ole way back for a new day.

Together: Dedicated to our great, great, great, great, greats,
we shall b free In our home country.
To all our childrens, childrens, childrens, children,
Keep on smiling and thrivin on your Aboriginal Island.

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!
(language) 

We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

The Block Rocks

Holden Street’s where my family began,
Nan hiding under the bed 
From the devil man.
Mum fought her way through,
No one had it easy I knew.
Cards was the go, though
But no takin things slow. though
The Railway view, The Clifton, The Empress.
Koori’s here dress to impress.
We got style,
Leave Paris in Denial.
And our love is strong
Kisses and cuddles are long.
Don’t mess around 
Or the block will come down
Around
You!

(Language)

Chorus:
The Block rox!
We been here too long,
We too strong!
Your plans are no good 
Wantin the block to look good.
No rain’s goin to come,
Once development’s began.

The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
Mix it up, fix it up,
Don’t mess it up!

From Newcastle, Mooli, n Cowra
To Walgett, Moori n Cumra!
We’ll be gatherin till eternity
And now it’s up to you and me!
To give the men a hand
Help with em a plan
Culture centre & Sports centre, we a solid community.
Let’s get  it together true Redfern unity
All the block babies, warriors, soldiers,
Everyone knows now cause we told em.
Hold up ya hands if ya care!
N Scream I’m there
(I’m there)
I Care
(I care)
If that qualified as a petition
The world would listen.

Since the beginning of their visiting
We been holdin em out – resisting.
Pamulway, Tedbury,
They showed the way!
Uncle Doug, Uncle Ken n Uncle Max,
They knew not to be too relaxed.
Like the Redfern All Blacks
Keep the ball in motion,
Just like a rolling ocean.
Truth is always the potion,
Let’s move this notion.

The Block Rox!

(language)

Chorus:
We been here too long,
We too strong!
Your plans are no good 
Wantin the block to look good.
No rain’s goin to come,
Once development’s began.
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
Mix it up, fix it up,
Please don’t mess it up!

Forget the Harbour Bridge, Centre Point, The Rocks,
Bondi & Darling Harbour  – the Block Rox!
What a sad day
That one in Botany Bay.
So called brutes and Terranulias.
You fulla’s shamed your king and yourselves,
Changing paradise into a colony.
Forgetting along the way, humanities.
But now we strong and each one of us is free.
Hardened by misery.
Cause today the top dogs 
Still bring in the top rocks.
But No matter what 
The Block will always Rock!
Yes its the black heart,
Redfern was the very start,
Of many things, great.
A late congrats to all who’d congregate,
for our communities, our race.
FACTSIA, Activists, 
With all the mad tactics
Medical centre and childcare.
Still on the Block we always share.
For the work you do, 
We all thank you
Uncle Shane, Aunty Ali n all the mob that rallies 
Together for Redfern, it’s your turn 
to sing:

The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!

Chorus: 
We been here too long,
We too strong!
Your plans are no good 
Wantin the block to look good.
No rain’s goin to come,
Once development’s began.

The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
Mix it up, fix it up,
Please don’t mess it up!

To the whole Redfern family,
U a big part of me.
Specially those we’ve lost.
And we’ll never loose the block!
No sellin off
To no yupee lot
I oppose any notion 
That goes against the grain of the people n the emotion.
I hope this message travels across the land,
All hear it, Koori woman and man.
The blocks still under threat,
They tryin to knock it down n attack it with bricks and cement.
Is any body available – (to comment?)
Whose liable,
When the grandchildren come to gather
And there’s not even a shadow.
To remind them of the times,
All the years, all the people gone by?
All the years Redfern shines,
Always so fresh in my heart and mind.
I’m one to put a stop to, well start…
We can’t be sold out by no retard.
No disrespect.
No harm meant.
Be accountable,
Don’t let it fall!
I can’t it’s where I learnt to crawl!
N people there changed my nappy…
The block is where we’re all happy!

Cause 

The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!

(language)

Chorus: 
We been here too long,
We too strong!
Your plans are no good 
Wantin the block to look good.
No rain’s goin to come,
Once development’s began.
Mix it up, fix it up,
Please don’t mess it up!
You only got one shot.

The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!
The Block Rox!

Breathe

Chorus: 
Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be
Release, release, Oh release.
All is as it’s meant to be.

Language (fast dance beat)

Cause they don’t know how they feel,
Let’s keep these dictators reel.
We been driven from our lands.
Are we controlled by the man?
All is as it’s meant to be.  They say.
And we can’t fix a world that’s not broken 
But so many words go unspoken.
So man’s direction has to be criticised
For disillusioned plans to civilise.
We the most documented race,
But nobody really knows,
Even though on 
All of our faces it shows.  

Chorus: 
Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be
Release, release, Oh release.
All is as it’s meant to be.

But people care, there to lend a helping hand.
Is it enough though?
Life is tough you know?
Open your eyes; wanna scream?
Everything is as it’s meant to be.
Everything’s just as it’s meant to be?
Would I change a thing?
This damn democracy is crazy!
No, don’t, stop that, you can’t,
Even babies aren’t free.
These puppeteers of false mastery
Better off stickin to customary law…real mastery.

Kaiyu: Gotta look after number one?
How do you tell that to a mum?
All those who’ve had enough, open your heart
Where do they start?
Hear their screams,( is ok?)
What bout they dreams
Can we walk away because we feel this way…?
When lil help never went astray.

People care and someone’s always there.
The greatest of us, grew up tough,
Overcoming feelings of giving up.
So don’t scream, just breathe.
In n Out    In n Out  (background fast beat – In out, In out at same time).

C’mon people share and care to understand, first…
Kaiyu: Breath in and out.

Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be
Release, release, Oh release.
All is as it’s meant to be.

Patty: Does the world get colder as we get older?
Can’t get sick, need an ear or a shoulder?
The unity is missin
From our communities.
To raise our children proper,
Let’s set up camp wherever.

People do care – there to lend a hand
Listen carefully – to the land
Open our eyes – we all got to realise…
People care – even wen the problem ain’t theirs.
Sing and dance now.

Close your eyes.
Close your mind.
Because everything, 
everything is as it’s meant to be.

Together, lets send love to all suffering and for freedom,
For the war torn and oppressed,
The hungry n homeless.

Together: Do we care? Care to really understand,
How we really feel?
How we really live?
Might make us wanna scream, but…
Take it slowly and… breathe.
Care to share n be there,
For the ones you love,
Before we give up.
Dare to dream,
Quieten our minds and breathe.

And join together,
One mob forever.
Bring our best selves
Aim for the top shelves.
And start to care
Or it could be the end of man, damn.
In the meantime, just breathe….

In n out (In out, In out).
In n out (In out, In out).

Language (fast dance beat)

Chorus:
Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be

Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be

Sometimes
When I rise up
Open my eyes up 
Wanna scream 
Wanna scram
Get the hell out here
But all is as it’s meant to be
Release, release, Oh release me.
All is as it’s meant to be.
Just Breathe In N Out 
(Breath in out, in out).

  
 
Sunshine In A Concrete Haze

Lil Kaiyu down Waterloo,
Down the PCYC you can find me, 
The factory, Laundromat,
The fern or market.
Not quiet what life was meant to be,
Shops n a lane – not reel free.
We were happy
Eatin fruit from a tree,
Drinkin water from a whole in the conrete.
Little women,
Meetin up – goin swimmen, 
Down the PA,
Go home n u have to stay.
No idea what was round the corner,
Sis, wished I could’ev warned ya.
Cuase it felt too good
In our lil neighbourhood
Across from the Rabbits
N all the bad habbits
So much goin down in our home town 
We were too busy bein little clowns

Chorus:
You see we love Redfern n Waterloo too!
Even far away it’s still in you.
But take us home 
Where our spirits roam.
Our ole ways 
Like cleaning rays
Too much sorry time
In all our lives…
Brothers n sisters we free – You n Me!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

Your bodies tired and mind’s even worse,
You’ve seen it all 
N aint nothing to live for.
But this is your land!
Bloods on white hands!
You and me,
We free.
Send all the majik U can find,
Heal that pain and see us shine.
Our grannies were taken,
Our children forsaken.
And trying to awaken
From this nightmare called life,
Trouble, strife.
Old n new trauma is too much pain
For one too maintain.
It’s not all in vein,
Cause we can all remain
Part of that long, long chain.

(language)

Chorus:
You see we love Redfern n Waterloo too!
Even far away it’s still in you.
But take us home 
Where our spirits roam.
Our ole ways 
Like cleaning rays
Too much sorry time
In all our lives…
Brothers n sisters we free – You n Me!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

We free to enjoy each other n loving this experience,
Make time to cry n still marvel at our brilliance.
We can learn to live, love n laugh,
Even if making the most of this day is hard.
Learn just 1 word, listen n smile,
Play with children, run a mile.
Our mind needs exercise.
Soon we’ll all realise,
With these strong blood lines,
It’s still our time.
Swim in our waters, eat our food,
Rid all problems with mood.
And with all this began,
Wat will invasion really have done.
Aborigine – part o’ u’s in part of me.
Me n you, you n you, we gotta become we.
We all branches off the one tree.
That’s how we put an end to world hostility.

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!
Chorus:

You see we love Redfern n Waterloo too!
Even far away it’s still in you.
But take us home 
Where our spirits free to roam.
Our ole ways 
Like cleaning rays
Too much sorry time
In all our lives…
Brothers n sisters we free – You n Me!

(language)

This song is dedicated to the sufferers of invasions. There experiences are a direct result of systems gone wrong from the beginning.  Who feels it the most? The disadvantaged. Even though they do not engage in it in any way they experience the brink of the rapes, the violence, the murders, drugs, degradation and overall disregard of one of the greatest treasures of all time. Human Kind.

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

Cause we the deadliest,
The strugglers!
They goin bleed us,
We goin Lead us!

 
 
Is It Always Goin 2 Feel This Way?

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

This our Island home
Free n easy we roam.
Disrupted 100,000 years of peace
For convicts and their police.
You’ve no jurisdiction,
With a history like science fiction.
Cause we have listened, we have learned, 
We have laughed, cried and yearned…
So this Westminster system with no jurisdiction
Is about to be overturned.

Confusioned, disillusion,  
where’s the revolution?
Keep a check on how we feel,
Are we all keeping real?
Keep checkin our relation
Cause from nation to nation
We are all racin to nowhere land and
We need to understand…

Because it’s not meant to be like this
Bein helpless
Not meant to feel like this
Clenchin our fists. 
Kneeling and praying each day,
Is it always going to feel this way?

(Language)

GOORI’S!!!!!!!!!!
Rise up, Rise up, Rise up.
Sovereign people still today
For a new day, for our old ways.
Time to thrive,  we have survived.
Even modern day genocide.
Colonisation, segregation, assimilation and  now reconciliation
Got all our ears achin!
So let’s go walkabout n coorooboree now..
Dreamin’s alla time – anytime, 

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

Patty: It’s not meant to be like this
Lacking a mothers kiss
Not meant to feel like this
Lil joyfulness
If we kneel n pray, for it to go away
Kaiyu: Is it always goin to feel this way?

Patty: This land where you stand needs man to understand
This is sacred land,
Everywhere you walk, sit or stand,
Our people been there.
Our rainbow serpent and red sand
Law, histories, song and dance.
It’s coming back from the surface
To put an end to this circus.
We know a better way
From living in a better day.
Now Sssshhh, while we watch our children play.
There ain’t no mystery
We governed, we tilled and documented history.
In 2008 you can’t get away with Invasion
Put an end to this illegal occupation, of a nation, 
Stop rations, listen,  be patient.
Kicking off the heads of our next generation,
Now victims of corporate rascists.
We the key ingredient!
All this talk anybody meanin it?
Experience and understanding is seldom 
Yet knowledge plus consequences, equals wisdom.
Don’t it?

Not meant to be like this,
Life is politics
Not meant to feel like this
Bunch of lunatics at it,
If we try a different way
Is it always goin to feel this way?

(Language)

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

No, No, No,
It’s not to be this way
Our spirit still strong today
It’s not meant to feel this way
Sing, dance, shout now n play
The ole way back for a new day.

Together: Dedicated to our great, great, great, great, greats,
we shall overcome In our home country.
To all our childrens, childrens, childrens, children,
Keep on smiling and thrivin on your Aboriginal Island.

Chorus: 
We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!
(language) 

We were here you know?
Long, long, long, long time ago.
In this bright green country
For us to all roam freely
Why would you change It?
I have to  ask this nation.
Got to realise it.
Then Indigenize It!

  
 Anything Is Possible

It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
Squeezin forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

Your beautiful, spiritual n sensual,
So young, yet so sensible.
You make me shine
N smile all the time.
I never knew I was so strong,
I hadn’t been happy for so long.
This love is amazing,
It drives me crazy.
And when I look at you,
That light is shinning thru.
Enjoyin the kids and life,
I’d gladly be your wife.
Because with you, anything is possible,
Everything is real.

(Language)

Chorus:
It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
Squeezin forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

Oh n how u love me,
You believe in me,
Your overwhelmin me,
By helping me get to my feet.
With you I feel complete.
I hold your hand, 
Proud to call you my man.
We can do anything,
Together just being.
We’re so happy.
All the time.
N it’s our time to shine.

Chorus:
It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
Squeezin forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

Yes let’s fish n swim,
The way u treat u’r woman.
U know how to have fun,
Lift my head when its hung.
Talk, play the PSP
Books, n movies,
We even paint beautifully,
Create a life mural.
I promise we’ll do well.
I’m here for you,
Right next to you.
All the way,
What he say.
N for me you do the same.
You’re a father, a hunter.
N ooohhh I  just luv ya
With you anything is possible
Everything is real.

(Language)

Chorus:
It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
Squeezin forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
We belong forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

It was spiritual majik 
All round me.
I thought that Island home had trapped me.
I’m alive, ready to thrive.
With you I wanna dance it through.
Dreamin together, 
We belong forever.
I love U! I Love U! 
True I do!
N Only You. 

Herstory

Matriarch, sacred feminine,
The sun moon balance.
Divinity decided by vanity.
And so becomes history.
Your hollyness was a man
His other half – you guessed it, a woman.
Standing strong
Ready to carry the messages on.
I’m a disciple of the old way,
Again and again you’ll hear me say,
Herstory is here to stay!

Chorus:
Women’s business,
It’s serious.
It’s not gone, why dismiss it?
Live with it, 
Start sharin it.
Cause we had it tight, right, right, right, back.
And on a feminist track 
We had a lot to do with that!

Free thinker have learned
Back then we’d a be burned.
Like the first testament
N the scriptures
That might contain some truth.
Who they tryin to fool,
Telling us all to believe
This father of Jesus,
Made us?
Our mothers created us.
Believe in ourselves.
G.O.D
Is the Great Out Doors.
So pay attention to the seasons,
And look at all the reasons, 
We ended up here.
We’re in drivers seat – steer.
Look after the sisters
Nurture her.
Or stay clear n live in harmony with mother nature
She’ll save ya.
There’s a female half to all things,
Can’t u c it’s missing?
We are out of balance and out of wack,
Herstories got to come back.

Chorus:
Women’s business,
It’s serious.
It’s not gone, why dismiss it?
Live with it, 
Start sharin it.
Cause we had it tight, right, right, right, back.
And on a feminist track 
We had a lot to do with that!

Dubai, Jundal, Kudgerie!
Woman Magic!

Why do you mock our business?
Ladies night at clubs,
Distasteful pubs.
Cause women are the champions of all time.
Standing behind,
At the brink of crime.
So with this rhyme
I hope to remind you all
We there to pick u up fall after fall.
Nurture you more and more.
Heal your pain,
Stop the world from goin insane.
So let’s go back, back in time.
To a way even I’d be happy to live by.
And instead of worshippin myths and legends,
Kings and Queens- 
There is no other,
Like a mother.
Yes it’s pagan
Like Yagan.
Where we began.
Fire, water, sun and moon,
When it’s full notice, that change in you?
And harvest times were Christmas 
Before Christians.
But we still half thinkers, missin…
What is it? The feminine.
So let’s get in touch with it,
We all need mothering.

Chorus:
Women’s business,
It’s serious.
It’s not gone, why dismiss it?
Live with it, 
Start sharin it.
Cause we had it tight, right, right, right, back.
And on a feminist track 
We had a lot to do with that!

You gotta know it –
To be a warrior
You gotta show it – 
To be a soldier
You gotta luv it – 
Let her rock ya, world!
In the Moonlight,
Watch us shine bright.
To drum beats,
We movin right.
Loving all of it, 
Lookin sweet!
Needin leeders,
We need her.
Believe that
No matter what!
You know where we came from now let’s
Live a life that’s wholesome.

Dubai, Jundal, Kudgerie!
Woman Magic!
Chorus x 2

 
 
Look Out…

(warning: contains issues dealing with sexual violence)

We feel like scrubbing hard,
Runnin a yard,
Punch and scream real loud.
And you, your runnin you coward,
Leavin me forever in half,
In your path.
Hope you soon land in hell. 
What just happened – who to tell?
Where’s my safe place?
Keep my mind at a safe pace.
Dr’s, lawyers, police, family n Psychology,
How’s anyone gonna help me?
Grown men to lil girls, 
Upside down goes their worlds.

I’m goin to see you one day,
Why’d you do that I’m a say?
Somebody hurt you that bad,
You go make hundreds sad?
Go on tell me your problems – if that’ el help.
I’l do anything to end this living hell.
But it’s time for you to repair what’s no longer there.

Where, how do people loose control,
And take like a car needs petrol.
I hope you get help soon,
Before a new victims doom.
But where do we start,
Being worlds apart?
I feel sick, I’m scared,
You, you better be scarred.
Love n kindness not
Anger n violence.

I’m goin to see you one day.
Why’d you do that I’m a say?
Somebody hurt you that bad,
You go make hundreds sad?
Go on tell me your problems – if that’ el help
I’l do anything to end this living hell.
But it’s time for you to face your disgrace.

Care to loosen
This noose I’m wearin?
Ever thought about it
All the pain created?
That you initiated,
Debilitating.
Worth the lives taken?
One day soon I’l be free
From the misery you put on me.
My body’s my shrine
And more importantly it’s mine.
If I forgave you 
What would that do?
Really, how much good is still in you?
Plus.. the pain you cause,
You could never undo.

I’m goin to see you one day,
Why’d you do that I’m a say?
Somebody hurt you that bad,
You go make hundreds sad?
Go on tell me your problems – if that’ el help.
I’l do anything to end this living hell.
But it’s time for you to prepare.

Years of living lost,
You cant imagine the loss.
Is this any skin of your nose?
I really gotta know.
I am going to see you and I’l have all day.
I want to hear what you have to say.
I will walk away, start again.
For you – I’ll just say
Poor thing!

Kids Weekend

No tears, no fears, you got t be strong
Got to find a place where you belong.
Just shying away
Where faith dances straight.
Take time out, dig deep, deep down.
Keep your head up high, u’r feet on the ground.
We decide how we’ll feel.
We decide how we heal.
Fillin our day with laughter and play, (please)
Look after each other and send love each day.
Seek n u shall find
What treasures I hide in my mind.

Chorus:
Listen please, listen to me.
As I sing, this song to u.
Hear my message coming through
Do we wanna be happy?
Do we wanna be free?
Boom shuck-a-lucka!
Twiddley diddley diddley dum
Twiddley diddley diddley dee

Wanna start out happy
All the family
Kids clean behind us 
For there’s fun to be had
Have some fruit
Put on the boot
Love you all – I’m off
Cause I’m a kid 
– n I’m free
I’m me – who I’m meant to be
I’m a kid, I’m a kid!
A brainy, brainy, brainy, brainy kid.

I think I’ll fly a plane
N hope it don’t rain.
Then play shops
And buy the lot.
We’ll pretend to go to work
N that someone gets hurt.
We can be ten foot tall
Without a problem at all
But when I’m feelin down,
Please don’t turn around.
Cause one day soon
(I promise) I’ll be big like you.
But it don’t look real fun 
so let’s walk, not run.
And let’s get the party 
Begun.

Chorus:
Listen please, listen to me.
As I sing, this song to u.
Hear my message coming through
Do we wanna be happy?
Do we wanna be free?
Boom shuck-a-lucka!
Twiddley diddley diddley dum
Twiddley diddley diddley dee

I Wanna start out happy
All the family 
Kids clean behind us 
For there’s fun to be had
Have some fruit
Put on the boot
Love you all – I’m off
Cause I’m a kid 
– n I’m free
I’d rather you be you – n I be me.
Cause I’m a kid, I’m a kid!
A brainy, brainy, brainy, brainy kid.
So you be you n I be me.

I can imagine being called your honour
Or being the prime minister.
If it were up to me maybe the world wouldn’t be so messed up.
I can play basketball,
Even pretend to start a war.
But I’d rather be peaceful,
Or even sing soulful.
Go home to get a quick bite,
This time I might take the bike
Or the skates or scooter.
I really love things with a loud hooter.
I’ll make some cool music
And pretend to go loopy.
Or be an adult
That would be yuck!

Chorus:
Listen please, listen to me.
As I sing, this song to u.
Hear my message coming through
Do we wanna be happy?
Do we wanna be free?
Boom shuck-a-lucka!
Twiddley diddley diddley dum
Twiddley diddley diddley dee

I Wanna start out happy
All the family
Kids clean behind us 
or there’s fun to be had
Have some fruit
Put on the boot
Love you all – I’m off
Cause I’m a kid 
– n I’m free
I like being me, can’t u see?
Cause I’m a kid, cause I’m a kid
A brainy, brainy, brainy, brainy kid!
I Love being me – can’t you see.
      I’m Free!
So listen please, listen to me.
N you and I will be complete!

 Written with Jamie Morgan

 
Mum’s The Word

Chorus:
Mum’s the word
That’s what you heard
My best friend, my teacher
Thanks to you I’m hear
My mother’s the bomb
Number 1! (scratched)
I love you mum,
Thanks for all that you’ve done.

Irunjel: My mum’s always there 
Tries to help me understand.
N grows me up to be man.
Everyday should be mother’s day, her day, your day.
Put your feet up,
Have a massage.
I know for you it’s hard,
Kid’s, the job, house n lil rewards.
But, I’m gonna make you proud
Stand out in the crowd.
You’ve given me all I need,
So don’t worry now, please.
I chose the right one.
I got the very best mum.

(language)

Mum’s the word, (scratched)
That’s what I learned.
Where would I be, 
Without thee
Best mother.
Oh respect her, hear her, honour her, feel her.

Chorus:
Mum’s the word
That’s what you heard
My best friend, my teacher
Thanks to you I’m hear
My mother’s the bomb
Number 1! (scratched)
I love you mum,
Thanks for all that you’ve done.

Tiga: Mother nature, creator.
They made us
And everything we see, 
Its all majk mother’s weave.
Protecting us,
Connecting us.
I need them kisses, how u hold me tight
N tell me I ‘m doing alright.
You listen n you feel my pain.
Mum, without you life ain’t the same.
But while we here together now,
For the finest job, please take a bow.

Cause the star to the show is……….

Mum!

Mum’s the word, (scratched)
That’s what I learned.
Where would I be, 
Without thee
Best mother.
Oh respect her, hear her, honour her, feel her.

(language)

Chorus:
Mum’s the word
That’s what you heard
My best friend, my teacher
Thanks to you I’m hear
My mother’s the bomb
Number 1! (scratched)
I love you mum,
Thanks for all that you’ve done.

Irunjel:
Everyday your there
Every piece of you is shared.
What about you though
Where you wanna go?
Let’s spend some time,
I wanna see you really smile.
Taught me everything I know
How to wind down and take it slow,
Have fun, be playful while getting on with the show.

Tiga:
You only get one life
Live it wisely.
Treat people kind, you taught me.
Hold your head up high,
Always try hard,
Aim for the moon, at least you’ll land in the stars.
Be strong and loving.
Look after the land, family, 
culture and let that spirit dance.
Most importantly you taught me to take a stance.

Mum’s the word, (scratched)
That’s what I learned.
Where would I be, 
Without thee
Best mother.
Oh respect her, hear her, honour her, feel her.

Chorus:
Mum’s the word
That’s what you heard
My best friend, my teacher
Thanks to you I’m hear
My mother’s the bomb
Number 1! (scratched)
I love you mum,
Thanks for all that you’ve done.

(language)

Together: We look like our mum
Sound like our mum
We love you mum
The way you love us
The way your bringing us up
You’ve taken me everywhere 
I  even love fighting, 
the beach even shopping with you.
You’re the number girl in the world,
We’re the luckiest of all.
Put u # 1, whenever
Cause mum… you matter.

We walk together, read together, Talk together, swim together,
Ride together, drive together
I love our time together. 

Chorus:
Mum’s the word
That’s what you heard
My best friend, my teacher
Thanks to you I’m hear
My mother’s the bomb
Number 1! (scratched)
I love you mum,
Thanks for all that you’ve done.

Mum’s the word, (scratched)
That’s what I learned.
Where would I be, 
Without thee
Best mother.
Oh respect her, hear her, honour her, feel her.
 
Written with Tiga & Irunjel

How Insane (that Gin Lane)

Alcohol bans, treaten us like children
Over this alien substance,
An introduced nuisance.
Governments might as well be an endorsee,
It’s legal cause of the money in it.
Rum Corps, bribes and slavery.
Here, that’s how it come to be.
But in London
For the peasants
Came an affordable drink,
Makin life for the poor gut renchin.
A lane for drunks and gins.
We got called the very same thing.
Babies hangin by there feet,
Mothers without teeth.
It’s a little different,
Just convenient
To label
The rebel.
All who drink 2 much turn to mongrel,
It’s not our way,
Drink it you say.
Make your pain go away.
But like the girls in gin lane,
Go insane.

Chorus:
Cause we had no such thing as an alcoholic
Or gin and tonic.
Yeah people got high from time to time,
Medicine, help to relax the mind.
Today though we choose dope or hope
To cut the chains, the shackles, the ropes.
Cause we beautiful and culture colourful,
We true!

Ruining ourselves,
Fillin jail cells.
N wakin listenin to whats been done.
None of it fun.
It was me though
I don’t remember but I know.
Bit humiliating,
The self blaming.
Born on the hottest coals,
Just need a lil calm n self control.
We loose another day, week, year,
We’ll get sober.
Fixing livers
Start really livin.
But what else is there to choose
I mean instead of drinkin booze?
There ain’t many options,
I can only think of one.
To get back to our roots
All of our truths.
Find ourselves.
Lost is easier to control
But come on -not our, parkies, goomies or drones.

Chorus:
Cause we had no such thing as an alcoholic
Or gin and tonic.
Yeah people got high from time to time,
Medicine, help to relax the mind.
Today though we choose dope or hope
To cut the chains, the shackles, the ropes.
Cause we beautiful and culture colourful,
We true!

We cant be lifer’s
Good liver – Good livin
Cant imprison ourselves
Lets fix the liver cells 
Feel alive
Thrive!

We cant be lifer’s
Good liver – Good livin
Cant imprison ourselves
Lets fix the liver cells 
Feel alive
Thrive!

Giving up can be empowering,
But goin need supporting.
Our old ways are here you know
From long time ago.
To stand up strong, in this land
Where we belong.
Reclaim our bodies,
Yeah be a little sorry
But it’s amazing
This thing covered in skin.
It can heal with love and kindness, like all of us, with niceness.
It’s the only solution –
Steps towards a health revolution.
Something different? Something new?
Or recycle the idea of goin back
On an original Aboriginal track?
With alcohol out of the equation
Lets go about undoing the effects – decolonisation.

Chorus:
Cause we had no such thing as an alcoholic
Or gin and tonic.
Yeah people got high from time to time,
Medicine, help to relax the mind.
Today though we choose dope or hope
To cut the chains, the shackles, the ropes.
Cause we beautiful and culture colourful,
We true!

C That Star!

Dedicated to Yarraka Bayles on your 27th birthday.

Yarraka u’r a beaming star

You da mumma Luck, 
The aunty Yak.
With an unbelievable power,
For the family, like a tower, yet a flower.
My sister,
All that time together, 
Is what I really miss, 
It’s me n u sis.
Never alone now,
You keep me goin and glowin.
I never did enough,
When you were doin it tough,
Down on your luck.
Stupid, I was stuck!
As the years go by you know,
I’m letting go, 
Lettin my love show,
Mo n mo .
So let’s do this sis.
Let’s start some shi……

Chorus:
You C that star – that’s my sistar
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer now,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly.

When we step up,
With sisters like us,
People know to make a fuss!
We real!
Showin all the deal.
With mum beside us,
We here to have fun.
N we’ll always be there,
Lookin out for each other,
I’m by your side now, forever.

Cause Yarraka – your the brightest star!

Chorus:
Yeah C that star – She my sistar!
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly.

With personality galore,
Since u were small.
Impressin with your dressin,
You have your own fashion.
Always mellow n yellow
But still letting me know.
Teachin me a lot, and
Not even aware of it.
We have to take a fall
We’ll get the right call.
U got the right stuff to be directin us,
Beautiful n tuff!
And for being there from day 1,
Through my tough spot,
Yarraka, I can’t thank you enough.

Chorus:
Yeah C that star – She my sistar!
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer now,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly.

You’ve waled alone
But not no mo,
Your love is gold and tight, I’ll hold it.
Together runnin, 
Since we had no pants on.
Growing up dancing
Laughin now at the romancing.
Tryin to move the tribe along,
We gotta thank mum n dad, we strong!
No where we belong and
Never forget where we came from!

Youthful
Artistic
Realistic
Romantic with
Attitude
Kaiyu loves u, (watch her she’s) 
Aware (n truthful)

Be there for her now
Cause Yarraka you’re the star!

Chorus:
Yeah C that star – She my sistar!
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer you know,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly.

So pretty and golden n
Plenty a breath you’ve stolen.
Yes a heart breaker,
But straight up and never a fake faker.
So I’d like to see you keep up
With Lili, Lala and they’re mum.
Names to look out for,
Gonna hear roars for one day
For the girls with a majikal ways.
Yeah, you’ll feel em commin from miles
Feel they’re smiles see the styles,
Of strong black women in the 21 century,
Watch these ones as they show us how it’s meant to be.

Chorus:
Yeah C that star – She my sistar!
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer n Let go,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly.

Yeah C that star – She my sistar!
Small baby dark cloud
U keep standin proud
Cause 27 years now
It’s time to cheer n Let go,
Cause your one of a kind,
(Here comes) 2009 – 
Watch this sister fly!

What if we could cure stress, anxiety and depression without drugs and without talk therapy ?

Healing Without Freud or Prozac
Book by Dr. Servan-Schreiber

The New Emotion Medicine can Transform your Life

As a psychiatrist well-versed in the classical techniques of my discipline, but often disappointed with their results, I explain in my book the basis of what could be called “a new emotion medicine”.
What if we could cure stress, anxiety and depression without drugs and without talk therapy ?

50 to 75 % of visits to a doctor are motivated by problems linked to stress, which is a more serious risk factor for health than tobacco ; the eight most commonly prescribed drugs are for problems directly linked to stress… and Americans and Europeans alike are consuming more antidepressants and tranquilizers every year.

These drugs, as indispensible as they are in some circumstances, have a limited efficacy and they cause side-effects. As for psychoanalysis-inspired treatments, apart from the fact that they are not accessible to everyone, it has never been possible to demonstrate their efficacy in a convincing way.

My book therefore proposes seven other methods to heal : Straightforward, effective, natural, with rapid and long-lasting results, without risks or side-effects, and all validated by rigorous scientific studies. They offer everyone, without exception, the means to regain control of their own life.

As a physician, clinical professor of psychiatry, and co-director of a cognitive neuroscience laboratory, I published my work for several years in leading scientific journals.
Yet, I progressively discovered that, along side of conventional medicine, a number of natural treatment methods for stress, anxiety and depression had been evaluated and validated in credible scientific studies. These amounted to nothing less than a new medicine of emotions.

This new medicine relies on the fact that we all have two different brains (see figures) : at the surface, a cognitive and rational brain, and deep inside, an emotional brain.

The cognitive brain is the seat of thought and language. It manipulates symbols.

The emotional brain controls the physiology of the body : heart rate, blood pressure, appetite, sleep, sexual drive, and even the immune system.

To heal stress, anxiety and depression it is necessary to act on the emotional brain. It is thus often more effective to act on the body rather than rely only on thought and language.

Cognitive Brain
At the surface of the brain, it is the seat of thought and language. In this image, the prefrontal cortex is activated in a subject practicing a complex mental task.

Emotional Brain
Deep inside the brain, the emotional brain controls the body’s physiology. In this image, the emotional brain is selectively activated (in red) in subjects experiencing intense fear.

1) Heart Coherence
The 40,000 neurons of the heart’s semi-autonomous network (“the little brain in the heart”) are tightly interconnected with the emotional brain. Together, they form a “heart-brain system” in which the heart itself plays an important role. By taming the heart directly, we can begin to tame our emotions.
The focus of this method is to train our cardiac rhythm to enter a state of “coherence” (enhanced healthy heart rate variability) rather than “chaos” (reduced healthy variability) which is its usual pattern. Chaos and reduced heart rate variability are associated with stress, anxiety and depressive states. It is also a leading predictor of high blood pressure, heart disease, and even mortality from all causes.

Heart-Brain System
The semi-autonomous network of neurons that make up “the heart’s little brain” is tightly interconnected with the brain itself. The brain and the heart influence each other at every moment. (Click on this image to make it bigger.)
Chaos
Coherence

In states of stress, anxiety or depression, the heart rate varies irregularly, it becomes “chaotic.”

  In states of well-being, gratitude or compassion, the heart rate varies regularly, it becomes “coherent.”
2) EMDR : Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
When a traumatic event rips through our life (the death of a loved one, a severe accident, a rape), it leaves a wound in our emotional brain. Yet, our brain has an innate ability to ’digest” difficult events, just like our skin has the ability to close a physical wound.

EMDR appears to stimulate directly the brain’s ability to digest past traumatic events and place them in their proper context. This may be through eye-movements resembling those that take place spontaneously during dreaming, or through other ways of stimulating attention.

To understand EMDR, stories need to be told about how it works for patients in rich western societies who are suffering from stress and depression, but also about children in extreme contexts such as Kosovo just after the war of 1999.

Traumatized Brain
Every emotional trauma leaves a scar in the brain. This PET image shows specific areas of activation while traumatized patients listen to the story of the worst thing that happened to them. On top, the emotional brain region specialized in the experience of fear is activated (amygdala and surrounding area). In the middle, the visual cortex is activated, as if patients were looking at the scene again. On the bottom, the area of the expression of language is deactivated, as if fear had put language “off-line.”
3) The Energy of Light
The emotional brain is very sensitive to different biological rhythms. Particularly that of light. Thanks to a lamp that simulates the progressive apparition of light with every dawn, it is possible to wake up without any alarm clock. The rise of dawn is the natural wake up signal with which the brain has been programmed to transition from sleep to arousal over millions of years. It turns out to be a remarkably effective treatment for seasonal depression and for the energy loss that many experience between the months of October and March in the northern hemisphere.

Case stories from the book

4) The Control of Qi (“Chi”)
For over 2,500 years, traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine has relieved stress, anxiety and depression with acupuncture. In the last ten years, progress in functional cerebral imaging has demonstrated that stimulation with fine acupuncture needles directly controls key areas of the emotional brain.

Acupuncture directly affects the emotional brain
In this Harvard University study, stimulation of the back of the hand with an acupuncture needle triggers a deactivation of emotional brain areas necessary for the experience of pain and fear. The effect is enhanced when the needle is twirled rapidly as in the classical acupuncture method (grey bands).
5) Omega-3 Fatty Acids
There have been two major revolutions in 20th century medicine : prodigious advances in surgical techniques, and the discovery of antibiotics. The third revolution is still in progress : the transformation of the very constituents of the body – and of the brain itself – through nutrition.
20% of the brain is made of essential fatty acids that cannot be manufactured by the body. They need to be drawn entirely from what we eat. For the emotional brain to work optimally, it needs an important supply of omega-3 essential fatty acids found in fish, seaweeds and some green vegetables.

In the last five years, several studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids are powerful antidepressants in addition to their well-established benefits on cardiovascular function.

Mood Food
Commonly found in fish oil, Omega-3 fatty acids are essential brain constituents and powerful antidepressants. Because the body does not manufacture them, they must be ingested, either as food or dietary supplements (above).

 
Fluidity of neuronal membranes
The membranes of our neurones are built from what we eat. Saturated fats (butter, meat, etc.) – here in bleu – are rigid. Omega-3 fatty acids – here in green – are polyunsaturated et therefore highly flexible. They confer particular properties to neuronal membranes which help with communication in the brain. (Computer animation by Dr. Scott Feller, Department of Chemistry, Wabash College, USA)

6) Prozac or Puma ?
Physical exercise – even only twenty to thirty minutes three times a week – has powerful effects on anxiety and depression. In two different studies from Duke University of people suffering from depression, physical exercise was as effective as Zoloft, a modern antidepressant comparable to Prozac. Furthermore, after the treatment, patients who recovered through exercise relapsed four times less than those who had recovered through the antidepressant. The effect of exercise on stress and anxiety is even more striking. A few simple tips are enough to help people get started, even when they have never exercised before and have no motivation.

7) Emotional Communication
The emotional brain of mammals evolved to guarantee that a mother would stay very close and connected to its offspring for several weeks, or several years in the case of humans (because human infants are not self-sufficient for at least several years, unlike most other mammals). Affective connectedness regulates emotions and most physiological functions of the body. We now know that love is a biological need, on a level comparable to food and protection against cold temperatures. Several studies even show that the love of a dog or a cat has powerful effects on mood, and can reduce our responses to stress. 

Love is a Biological Need
In the few hours following separation from its mother, the physiology of a rat pup becomes literally unglued. In a normal state, the different body functions displayed on this graph are aligned with each other and remain centered close the mid-line. But after separation from the mother, the tightly woven balance of the entire system is shattered as each function comes apart.
A number of truly simple methods exist that help bring more harmony to our emotional bonds. The first one can be summarized in six points that facilitate conflict resolution – at work, with our partner, with our chidren, with our parents. It is the beginning of a totally different way to conduct one’s life.

To deepen our relationships, we must also learn to more emotionally present with those around us, while learning how to set meaningful limits. A simple four point method that is commonly taught in medical schools and residency programs can facilitate this connection of one emotional brain to another, in less than 15 minutes. I experienced its effectiveness in family medicine clinics in the US as well as in makeshift clinics in Kosovo, but it also applies to the difficult relationship we may have all our lives with our mothers or other close relatives.

Committing to the community
Life has no meaning if we live focused on our own selves. In order to be happy, we must give of ourselves to others. This has been emphasized by all great religions and all great traditions of philosophy. Scientific studies now confirm that tenet : the happiest people among us are those who feel that they belong to a larger community of human beings among which they play a meaningful role. Committing to volunteer work through a local organization is often an excellent way to get started.

Source: http://www.instincttoheal.org/article.php3?id_article=1

I bet u thought u were safe from interventions harm…wrong

Budget – New participation measures for long-term unemployed, jobless families, teen parents and people with disability, income management trials.

*** E & OE – Proof only ***

MADONNA KING: Now under this week’s Budget there are big changes to the way welfare is handed out and it’s teenage parents in Logan and Rockhampton who will really feel the heat first. They are two of ten disadvantaged communities to trial the Government’s welfare to work policies. One trial will see parenting payments frozen to young mums and dads if they don’t complete Year 12 or look for a job. Another involves income management where families considered at risk could have up to half their Centrelink payments set aside to buy the basics. Jenny Macklin is the Federal Minister for Families, Housing and Community Services. Good morning.

JENNY MACKLIN: Good morning Madonna.

MADONNA KING: Logan is one of ten communities for two of these trials. It’s one of only five for another. What makes Logan stand out for something like this?

JENNY MACKLIN: It has a particularly high unemployment rate. I am sure your listeners in Brisbane would be aware that the unemployment rate in Logan is around twice that for the average for the rest of the country. So what we really do want to do is work very closely with those people, teenage parents, single parents, people who have been long term unemployed in the Logan area get back to work.

MADONNA KING: Let’s go through some of those. So what is the unemployment rate in Logan?

JENNY MACKLIN: It’s 9.1%.

MADONNA KING: And is there any breakdown on what category that is? Is it older workers, is it young people?

JENNY MACKLIN: I don’t have the breakdown with me but I can certainly get that for you.

MADONNA KING: Let’s look first at the help teenage parents to finish school. How about work, what do they have to do?

JENNY MACKLIN: Well what they have to do is first of all when their baby is six months old, they need to go to Centrelink and start talking with Centrelink about a participation plan that will apply when their child reaches twelve months old. And the focus of the plan for these young parents will be on getting them back to school, making sure that they’ve got the skills that they need so that when their child is going to school itself then the parent will be able to go to work.

MADONNA KING: So if they don’t comply what happens?

JENNY MACKLIN: The normal Centrelink rules will apply if people don’t attend these compulsory interviews then their payments will be suspended until they engage with Centrelink.

MADONNA KING: If a nineteen year old or a seventeen year old has a twelve month old child and you want them to go back to school, who looks after their child?

JENNY MACKLIN: The vast majority of their child care payments will be met so we recognise that providing child care and also very substantial child care assistance is necessary, so that will be made available.

MADONNA KING: And are their spots, do you know, for their children to fill in these child care centres?

JENNY MACKLIN: Well there’s certainly since we put this policy out, there have been many child care centres come out indicating that they do have vacancies. We know that it’s important that teen parents are able to find a child care place and we’ll make sure that they can afford that place.

MADONNA KING: It’s not just young parents, another trial targets parents who have been on income support for at least two years, just explain what that entails.

JENNY MACKLIN: It’s a similar approach so for parents who have been on income support for more than two years they will also be required to come into Centrelink, work through the issues that are relevant to them. What they will need to do in the early years of their children’s lives is to really focus on the health and early development of their children. So make sure their children are getting the health checks they should be getting, getting them into pre-school, getting them ready for school. And from the time the parent’s youngest child turns four, the parent will be required to start getting themselves ready to go back to work.

MADONNA KING: And they can also see their payments stopped?

JENNY MACKLIN: If they don’t attend the workshops or they don’t attend the interviews. These are normal Centrelink rules. They’re no different from what everybody has to do.

MADONNA KING: Are their jobs waiting for them in Logan to apply for?

JENNY MACKLIN: Well there are certainly jobs in Brisbane and I think you’d be aware that across Brisbane there are many, many jobs going and what we want to do is make sure that those families, especially families with young children can see a way to getting a job. It will be better for them and better for their children.

MADONNA KING: All right. These many, many jobs vacant in Brisbane, where are they?

JENNY MACKLIN: I think you’d be aware that the unemployment rate across Brisbane is much lower than it is in Logan and so what we’re trying to do (interrupted)

MADONNA KING: But it still doesn’t mean there’s a lot of vacancies. Certainly each day I’m hearing from people, particularly in their forties, unable to get a job in Brisbane.

JENNY MACKLIN: And we’re talking here about a lot of young people who might have young children but we want to make sure that they don’t face a life on unemployment benefits, or the single parent payments. We want to make sure that they’ve got the chance to get an education and then get a job.

MADONNA KING: And you’re sure those jobs do exist?

JENNY MACKLIN: Well they certainly do exist for people who have a decent education and that’s why helping young people finish their education, making sure that jobless families get the chance to improve their own education, and get their children into preschool will mean that the families and the children will be better off.

MADONNA KING: There’s also income management trials, who’ll qualify for that and how does that work Minister?

JENNY MACKLIN: The way it works is similar to the way it’s been operating in Western Australia for a couple of years now. So if the child protection authorities in Queensland recommend that there are parents in the Logan area or in Rockhampton would benefit from income management then they can recommend that to Centelink. So what that will mean is that up to 70% of a parent’s welfare payments can be income managed and that will require 70% of their welfare payments to be spent on the essentials of life like food and clothing and (interrupted)

MADONNA KING: And who polices that?

JENNY MACKLIN: Centrelink.

MADONNA KING: And so does Centrelink staff go shopping with them or how does that work?

JENNY MACKLIN: No, everybody gets a Basics Card and this is what operates right across Perth now. So if you’re income managed because you’ve been neglecting your children you’ll get a Basics Card and you can take that to Woollies or Coles and you can spend it on things that are good for your children but you can’t spend it on alcohol.

MADONNA KING: That’s the compulsory component. I understand there’s also a voluntary component here. Who do you think would willingly take it up?

JENNY MACKLIN: We’ve had quite a few people in Western Australia take it up. Sometimes it’s people who have been, who know someone who was compulsorily income managed and they can see that they’ve got control of their finances. So we’ve had older people, young families, quite a range of different people decide voluntarily to have their welfare payments income managed.

MADONNA KING: What’s the safety net here? What if after all these trials, cutting the welfare income still doesn’t work, how will you ensure children aren’t going hungry, families aren’t evicted because they can’t pay the rent?

JENNY MACKLIN: Of course, families, these families will continue to receive their Family Tax Benefits. One of the reasons that people might be income managed is if they’re not paying their rent. So this would be a way of helping people to organise their finances so that in fact their rent was paid.

MADONNA KING: And just before I let you go, there’s criticism today the welfare changes for single parents where if they have a child between twelve and fifteen they get moved from the parenting payment to the Newstart Allowance and that’s going to leave 50,000 people $56 less a week even if they are fulfilling work requirements. Is that too harsh?

JENNY MACKLIN: I don’t think so. What we’re really saying to parents of teenagers is that we want to help you get back to work and so what we’re doing is providing a lot more support to those single parents of teenagers and we’re also improving the income test so that those parents can keep more of what they earn. So if a parent gets a part time job for example, they’ll be able to keep more of the income they earn rather than losing it.

MADONNA KING: Minister, thank you.

JENNY MACKLIN: No problem.

Source: http://www.jennymacklin.fahcsia.gov.au/transcripts/2011/Pages/budget_longterm_unemploy_ABC_12052011.aspx

Mental illness or spiritual illness: what should we call it?

Dr Ross Ingram Memorial Competition Winner

Mental illness or spiritual illness: what should we call it?

Lindy L Moffatt
MJA 2011; 194 (10): 541-542
With permission from my son I am able to tell this story. I have not used his name for privacy reasons.

I would like to dedicate this essay to the many Indigenous people who have passed away in psychiatric hospitals and did not make it home to their families and communities.

“Historical trauma” is defined as the subjective experiencing and remembering of events in the mind of an individual or the life of a community, passed from adults to children in cyclic processes as “collective emotional and psychological injury . . . over the life span and across generations”.1

Iwas raised in a foster family from the age of two, in suburban Brisbane, Queensland, with three of my siblings. I am a proud Aboriginal woman with close family ties across south-east Queensland and the north coast of New South Wales. My mother is from the Wakka Wakka clan group in Cherbourg and Brisbane. My father is from the Gumbaynggir and Dunghutti communities of the north-coast region of New South Wales.

Recently, I arrived in Canberra from Brisbane with my son to take up a Research Fellowship with the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. My research is on the question of “Mental health: what treatment options are working for Indigenous peoples?”. I have chosen this topic because of my personal experience as a mother.

The day before we left our home in Margate, a suburb in the north of Brisbane on Moreton Bay, to travel to Canberra, we attended my son’s mental health review tribunal hearing, an event that was life-changing for both of us. My son has suffered from a mental illness (schizophrenia) for many years, which saw him hospitalised for ten-and-a-half years. During this time he was on a forensic order as an involuntary patient, because of crimes he had committed while being unwell. I was expecting to be seeking the tribunal’s permission to take my son interstate for the three months that I would be working. Instead, to our surprise, his forensic order was revoked, meaning he was able to leave Queensland and live wherever he wanted. Overwhelmed by the decision, my son kept repeatedly asking the tribunal panel what it meant for him.

As a mother I have struggled, mostly because I was only seventeen years old when my son was born. Of course, you can never imagine or prepare yourself for the way life can take such a turn some twenty years later. I had lived with my biological mother on and off since I was fifteen, so she took on significant caring responsibilities for my baby, who was her first grandchild. She was very close to him. My mother had also suffered from “mental illness” as a young woman and had been hospitalised (I don’t know how many times). I remember being told about it in quite a negative way. Mum was admitted to what was the “old” Wolston Park Hospital some forty years ago. This hospital was located on the same grounds as the hospital called The Park, Centre for Mental Health, where my son has spent his years. She had grown up in Cherbourg Aboriginal community in Queensland where she spent some of her childhood in the dormitory while her mother travelled away for work. I know she did not have good memories of the dormitory days, as she later shared some stories with me about the abuse that she witnessed and was subjected to in the dormitory. My mother died at the age of fifty-seven from kidney failure caused by diabetes, when my son was only twelve.

What I have read and come to understand about transgenerational trauma within Indigenous communities is that the suffering of individuals and communities from trauma and pain results in many unresolved issues not just for those immediately affected, but for those around them, their families and their descendants, and from what I know about my family history the trauma reaches much further than my mother. Personal experience has left me with no doubt that transgenerational trauma contributed to the mental/spiritual unwellness of both my mother and my son.

After my mother’s death our lives changed dramatically. I was in deep grief. It was difficult to “be there” emotionally, or in any other way, for my son. I felt vulnerable and extremely fragile. The grief was unbearable. It took me to a place that I found hard to come back from, to the point where I thought that I would die from it. At the time part of me wanted to. Fortunately, I did come back, just as my son was about to travel down his own road of self-destruction, which began with bizarre behaviour patterns. At about age fourteen, he started to use drugs — first marijuana, then amphetamines, known on the street as speed.

This is a parent’s nightmare. Drug taking was not something I had experience with, nor did I expect this to be happening to my child. What followed was years of risky behaviour, crime, eventually juvenile detention and then prison! As a mother, the pain of this is beyond imagination: it reaches into the very core of you. When your child is locked away, you are too. I was overcome with feelings of shame and guilt. I felt emotionally, psychologically and spiritually immobilised and trapped within myself. Of course, eventually it took its toll on my mental and physical health, and I was diagnosed with my own life-threatening illnesses. One of the many challenges was dealing with blame from people who were close to me. Some made conscious and unconscious hurtful comments because of their own pain and lack of understanding of my son’s illness.

We also experienced discrimination arising from the general community’s ignorance of mental illness. When going out in public — going shopping, for instance — people would stare, laugh or make comments.

The effects of this trauma are still with me today.

In prison, my son’s mental illness started to become very obvious, through the signs of self-harm, and symptoms of mental unwellness such as crying and responding to voices. Eventually, he was hospitalised and I visited him regularly, took him on leave many times and had him living with me for short periods. Unfortunately, he was so unwell that he would abscond from the hospital, and would run away from me as well. This caused immense anxiety, not only for me and our family and friends, but also for staff at the hospital who were genuinely concerned about his welfare. My son would go missing for days, sometimes weeks, without his medication. The police were, of course, alerted and it was their responsibility to find him, but I would usually locate him before they did, and would then seek help from the Indigenous workers or nurses to return him safely to hospital. This happened on many occasions.

Throughout these years of experience with my son and his illness, there were many moments when I questioned my own thoughts and feelings. I did know, however, that I was experiencing something that was deeply spiritual and unknown. My son’s thin and pale, ghost-like appearance haunted me, and I could feel him detaching from what was real. That is why it was important for me to be around to keep the strong spiritual and emotional bond between us — I knew from a sickening feeling inside me there was a very real risk of losing him through suicide. He was haunted by voices, and would respond by talking to people that he believed were real. Sometimes he was happy and laughing along with them; other times he would be screaming back at them to leave him alone, and would cry in a very mournful way that made me cry as well. I remember all this very vividly, especially the times at night when I would lie awake listening to him talking in another language which I knew to be an Aboriginal language. This did freak me out a little, as he appeared to be having conversations and speaking the language fluently. I thought that I was imagining what I had heard until family members and workers at the hospital told me that they had witnessed him doing the same thing. It was through this experience that I came to know and believe that Indigenous mental illness is also spiritual illness, as it is deeply connected to our spirituality and cultural beliefs. I also believe that this spiritual connection is what helped my son get through his illness to where he is today. A quote from the Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW newsletter has been helpful in supporting my thoughts around mental–spiritual illness.

Wellbeing is an holistic and collective issue, with specific individual health problems being of little relevance if not considered as part of wider social, spiritual and community health . . . Mental illness or disturbance may be seen as a ‘soreness of the spirit’ caused by loss of social and family networks, destruction of kinship and family, dislocation from ancestral lands and the conflict between tradition and the pressures of trying to exist within and alongside European culture.2

On one very memorable visit to the hospital I sat with the treating psychiatrist to discuss my son’s “progress”. She explained to me that there were “two very sick patients in the hospital at the time, [my son] being one of them”, and that “out of the two, he [was] the most unwell”. In a roundabout way, I guess she was trying to tell me that my son was the sickest patient in the hospital at that moment. To this day I don’t remember how I drove myself home.

During his long hospital stay of over ten years, my son lost elders and friends, mostly Indigenous patients, who passed away in hospital. He dealt with this in his own way, showing courage and strength. The thought was always at the back of my mind that he himself would not survive. I questioned myself all the time as to whether I was in denial of the possibility that he would be institutionalised forever, but remained convinced that it was important to rise above this thinking, and to try to stay positive, and most of all to believe that things can change and be different. My son is now very well, the best he could possibly be. He lives with me full-time and is actively seeking employment.

I have presented at workshops on mental illness in Indigenous communities and received positive responses from people who appreciated honesty and openness in talking about this sensitive area. There is definitely a need for more understanding and education in our communities so people can come together to share and talk openly without any shame or blame. I always tell people that talking about it and seeking help can mean the difference between life or death for a loved one. Through the years, I have always felt very strongly that “someone” was around, guiding me through this time in our lives. I listened to the messages and acted intuitively, particularly when my son was at his most critical times of illness, and the times when he went missing from the hospital. I give many thanks to all the people who were there supporting us on this long journey, such as family, friends, hospital staff and community, who gave us hope and encouragement. If it weren’t for them, I know we would not be here today to tell this story.

This story is difficult to tell because I know that I will be revisiting the trauma, reliving the memories of events that took place, and visualising the images that will forever haunt me. With permission from my son, I wanted to document and share this story in the hope that it may give strength and support to some other family who is going through the same or similar circumstances.

Author details
Lindy L Moffatt, DipCommWelfareWork&Counselling, Indigenous Visiting Research Fellow
Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra, ACT.
Correspondence: Lindy.MoffattATaiatsis.gov.au
References
Atkinson J, Nelson J, Atkinson C. Trauma, transgenerational transfer and effects on community wellbeing. In: Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice. Purdie N, Dudgeon P, Walker R, editors. Canberra: Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2010: 138. http://www.health.act.gov.au/c/health?a=sendfile&ft=p&fid=1708785562&sid= (accessed Apr 2011).
Schizophrenia Fellowship of NSW Inc. Quality of life. Indigenous: mental illness as understood in Aboriginal communities. 2008. http://www.sfnsw.org.au/About-Mental-Illness/Quality-of-Life/Indigenous/default.aspx (accessed Apr 2011).
(Received 4 Apr 2011, accepted 19 Apr 2011)

Source: http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/194_10_160511/mof10395_fm.html

Key statistical information Australia

Contents >> Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
These key findings are from articles released as the comprehensive series The Health and Welfare of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (Updated 14/04/2011)
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population comprises around 2.5% of the Australian population and is relatively young.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language and culture is being maintained.
Socioeconomic outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians continue to improve, but remain below those for non-Indigenous Australians.

Torres Strait Islander people (Updated 17/02/2011)
Torres Strait Islander people comprise 0.3% of the total Australian population and 10% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.
Many health and welfare outcomes for Torres Strait Islander people were similar to those for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Education (Updated 14/04/2011)
Educational attainment among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians continues to improve.
Higher levels of educational attainment are associated with better health outcomes.

Social and Emotional Wellbeing (Updated 29/10/2010)
Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults reported being happy.
Around one third of adults reported high/very high levels of psychological distress.
Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experienced discrimination.
Around one in twelve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults have personally experienced removal from their natural family.

Adult health (Updated 28/05/2010)
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer self-assessed health and were more likely to report higher levels of psychological distress than non-Indigenous Australians.
Latest results show a decline in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking rates, while alcohol consumption remains steady.

Mothers’ and children’s health (Updated 28/05/2010)
There are a number of positive findings in relation to maternal health and factors affecting childhood development, including high rates of breastfeeding and physical activity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

Disability (Updated 17/02/2011)
Half of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had a disability or long-term health condition.
Disability was associated with poorer health and welfare outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Housing circumstances (Updated 29/10/2010)
Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults lived in rented housing, however, the proportion living in homes being purchased has increased.
Fewer Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in housing with major structural problems, but overcrowding rates remain similar.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults living in housing with structural problems were more likely to report high/very high levels of psychological distress.
Access to health and community services (Updated 29/10/2010)
The majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households could locally access a range of medical and hospital services when needed.
Nationally, just over one-quarter of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults reported problems accessing one or more health services.
Community services and facilities that were less likely to be locally available when needed included emergency services, police stations and school bus services.
Parents/carers of around one in seven Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children needed (more) formal child care.

ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PEOPLES — DEMOGRAPHIC, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population comprises around 2.5% of the Australian population and is relatively young:
At June 30 2006, the estimated resident Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was 517,000 people, or 2.5% of the total Australian population.
In 2006, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population had a median age of 21.0 years compared with 37.0 years for the non-Indigenous population.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females have higher fertility, with an estimated total fertility rate of 2.57 babies per woman, compared with 1.90 babies per woman for all Australian females.
At June 2006, most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in non-remote areas with an estimated 32% of people living in major cities, 43% in regional areas, and 25% in remote areas.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have lower life expectancy than non-Indigenous Australians:
At the national level for 2005–2007, the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous life expectancy was 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females.
Life expectancy at birth for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males is estimated to be 67.2 years, compared with 78.7 years for non-Indigenous males.
Life expectancy at birth for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females is estimated to be 72.9 years, compared with 82.6 years for non-Indigenous females.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language and culture is being maintained:
In 2008, 19% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over (adults) and 13% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (aged 3–14 years) spoke an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language.
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are identifying with a clan, tribal or language group, 62% in 2008 up from 54% in 2002.
70% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (aged 3–14 years) and 63% of adults (15 years or over) were involved in cultural events, ceremonies or organisations in 2008.

Socioeconomic outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians continue to improve, but remain below those for non-Indigenous Australians:
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people completed Year 12 — 22% of people aged 15 years and over in 2008, up from 18% in 2002.
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people completed non-school qualifications — 40% of people aged 25–64 years in 2008, up from 32% in 2002.
The unemployment rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians fell from 23% in 2002 to 17% in 2008, but remained more than three times higher than the rate for non-Indigenous Australians (5% in 2008).

The Torres Strait Islander population comprises 0.3% of the total Australian population and 10% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population:
At June 30 2006, the estimated resident Torres Strait Islander population was 53,300 people, or 0.3% of the total Australian population.
Torres Strait Islander people comprised 10% of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population nationally, and 23% of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Queensland.
Nationally, more Torres Strait Islander adults spoke an Australian Indigenous language than all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults (31% compared with 19%).
Torres Strait Islander people were more likely than all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be participating in the labour force (73% compared with 65%) and to be employed (64% compared with 54%) in 2008.
Many other health and welfare outcomes for Torres Strait Islander people were similar to those for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
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EDUCATION

Educational attainment among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians continues to improve:
Apparent school retention rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander full-time students from Year 7/8 to Year 12 increased from 36% in 2000 to 47% in 2010.
Nationally, the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over completing Year 12 increased from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2008. The rate of Year 12 completion has also improved in all states and territories.
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are completing non-school qualifications, 40% of 25–64 year olds in 2008, up from 32% in 2002.
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people were fully engaged in work and/or study in 2008. Just over half (54%) of young people aged 15–24 years were either working full-time, studying full-time, or both working and studying; up from 47% in 2002.

Higher levels of educational attainment are associated with better health outcomes:
In 2008, 59% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15–34 years who had completed Year 12 reported excellent/very good self-assessed health compared with 49% of those who had left school early (Year 9 or below). For those aged 35 years and over, the rates were 43% and 25% respectively.
The likelihood of smoking also decreased with higher levels of schooling, 34% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15–34 years who had completed Year 12 were current daily smokers compared with 68% of those who had left school early. For those aged 35 years and over, the rates were 36% and 48% respectively.
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SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL WELLBEING

Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults reported being happy:
In 2008, 72% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over (adults) reported being a happy person all or most of the time, with rates higher among adults living in remote areas (78%) than non-remote areas (71%).

Around one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults reported high/very high levels of psychological distress:
31% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported high/very high levels of psychological distress. Rates were particularly high among those with a disability or long-term health condition, those who had been victims of violence, or who had experienced discrimination.

Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experienced discrimination:
More than one-quarter (27%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had experienced discrimination in the last 12 months.
One in ten (11%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 4–14 years reported being bullied at school because of their Indigenous origin.

Around one in twelve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults have personally experienced removal from their natural family:
In 2008, 8% (26,900 people) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had been personally removed from their natural family, consistent with the rate reported in 2002 (also 8%).
Of those who had experienced removal from their natural family, 35% assessed their health as fair or poor and 39% experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress, compared with 21% and 30% of those not removed.
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ADULT HEALTH

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer self-assessed health and were more likely to report higher levels of psychological distress than non-Indigenous Australians:
In 2008, 44% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported excellent/very good health and 22% reported fair/poor health.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to report fair/poor health. This gap has remained unchanged since 2002.
While nearly one-third of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 18 years and over had experienced high/very high levels of psychological distress, this was more than twice the rate for non-Indigenous people.

Both tobacco smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are major health risk factors. Latest results show a decline in Indigenous smoking rates, while alcohol consumption remains steady:
Between 2002 and 2008, the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander current daily smokers fell from 49% to 45%, representing the first significant decline in smoking rates since 1994. However, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people remained twice as likely as non-Indigenous people to be current daily smokers.
Around one in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over (17%) drank alcohol at chronic risky/high risk levels, similar to the rate reported in 2002 (15%).
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MOTHERS’ AND CHILDREN’S HEALTH

There are a number of positive findings in relation to maternal health and factors affecting childhood development including high rates of breastfeeding and physical activity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children:
In 2008, the majority of birth-mothers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–3 years (87%) had regular check-ups while pregnant (at least one every two months).
According to the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, three-quarters (76%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–3 years had been breastfed.
74% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 4–14 years were physically active for at least 60 minutes everyday, though the proportion was higher for those who lived in remote areas (84%).
The proportion of children aged 0–14 years who lived in a household where members usually smoked inside the house decreased from 29% in 2004–05, to 21% in 2008.
Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–14 years brushed their teeth at least once a day (71%). However, 25% of children aged 10–14 years had a tooth or teeth filled because of dental decay and 20% of children aged 5–9 years had experienced dental decay.
Eye or sight problems and ear or hearing problems were experienced by 7% and 9% of children aged 0–14 years respectively in 2008.
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DISABILITY

Half of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had a disability or long-term health condition:
Nationally, 50% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had a disability or long-term health condition in 2008. Around one in twelve (8%) had a profound/severe core activity limitation.
In non-remote areas, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were one and a half times as likely as non-Indigenous adults to have a disability or long-term health condition, and more than twice as likely to have a profound/severe core activity limitation.

Disability was associated with poorer health and welfare outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people:
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with a disability were more than four times as likely as those without a disability to rate their health as fair/poor.
Half (50%) of all people with a disability or long-term health condition were receiving a government pension or allowance as their principal source of income in 2008.
36% of people with a disability had problems accessing services, such as doctors, hospitals or employment services, compared with 24% of those without a disability.
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HOUSING CIRCUMSTANCES

Most Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 yearsand over (adults) lived in rented housing, however the proportion living in homes being purchased is increasing:
In 2008, the majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults lived in housing that was rented (69%).
More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults were living in housing that was being purchased in 2008 (20%) than in 2002 (17%).

Fewer Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in housing with major structural problems, but overcrowding rates remain similar:
While 26% of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households were living in dwellings with major structural problems in 2008, this has reduced significantly since 2002 (34%).
In remote areas, the rate declined from 50% to 34% (of households) between 2002 and 2008.
One-quarter (25%) of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults lived in overcrowded housing in 2008 — this has not changed since 2002.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults living in dwellings with major structural problems were more likely to report high or very high levels of psychological distress compared with those who did not (37% compared with 28%).

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ACCESS TO HEALTH AND COMMUNITY SERVICES

The majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households could locally access a range of medical and hospital services when needed:
62% of households could access Aboriginal health care services in 2008
74% of households could access hospitals (63% in remote areas)
82% of households could access health/medical clinics (69% in remote areas).

Nationally, just over one-quarter (26%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over reported problems accessing health services such as long waiting times and cost:
Dentists, doctors and hospitals were the health services where people were most likely to experience problems (by 20%, 10% and 7% of people respectively).

Beyond health services, there were similar levels of availability of community facilities and services to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households nationally. Services and facilities that were less likely to be locally available when needed included:
emergency services — not available for 20% of households
police stations — not available for 17% of households
school bus service — not available for 17% of households nationally and 39% of households in remote areas.

Parents/carers of around one in seven (14%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–12 years needed (more) formal child care:
In remote areas, unavailability of child care was the most common reason for not using more formal care (40% of children needing more care). In non-remote areas, it was cost (31%).
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This page last updated 13 April 2011
Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/lookup/4704.0Chapter100Oct+2010

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